Thursday, May 28, 2015

Filipino students bring home award from the 2015 Intel International Science & Engineering Fair

The 3rd grand prize winners in the biomedical and health
sciences category: Kenneth Antonio, Thea Tinaja and Marian
Cabuntocan of Bayugan City.
The team project of three high school students from Bayugan National Comprehensive High School in Bayugan City, Agusan del Sur won a third grand award prize of US$1,000 in the biomedical and health sciences category of the Intel Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF) held 11-15 May 2015 in Pittsburgh.    

The ISEF, a project of the Society for Science and the People based in Washington DC, is the premier and largest international pre-college science research competition for students in grades 9 to 12. 

The winning team of Kenneth Michael Angelo Natividad Antonio, 14, Marian Romero Cabuntocan, 16, and Thea Marie Laquinta Tinaja, 15, studied the potential of extracts from the integuments of the diamond back squid, a species that abounds in the locality, as source of neuroprotective and anti-stroke agents without causing adverse side effects on cardiac activity. They have found beneficial use for the integuments - waste products of a squid processing plant in their area.

Antonio will be in Grade 9, and Cabuntocan and Tinaja in Grade 10 this coming school year under the K-12 program. They plan to continue with their scientific investigation hoping to bring the results to the ISEF 2016 in Phoenix, Arizona..

Angelo Urag of Butuan City with his project
in material science.
Two other young Filipino scientists were with them in Pittsburgh.

Angelo Grabriel Abundo Urag, 15, incoming Grade 10 student of Father Saturnino Urios University in Butuan City, produced superhydrophic (non-wetting) copper stearate films using a one-step process.  It was his second time in the ISEF. Last year, he brought to Los Angeles his study on the superhydropic properties of the wings of local dragonflies.

Mary Carmelle Antonette Pedregosa Gindap, 16, incoming Grade 11 student of Iloilo National High School, Iloilo City, studied the antibacterial and anticoagulant properties of proteins from the skin and spine of Acanthaster planci, a marine animal species that feeds on and thereby destroys corals. She said that by gathering these sea creatures for biomedical uses, the infestation of the corals is controlled, thus protecting the reefs from degradation.

The Philippine delegates were part of around 1,700 young scientists selected from 422 affiliate fairs in more than 75 countries, regions and territories that converged in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The five Filipino delegates were the cream of regional finalists whose projects in the life and physical sciences competed at the National Science and Technology Fair (NSTF) of the Department of Education. The NSTF is the only ISEF-affiliated fair in the country.

Carmelle GIndap of Iloilo City studied the potential benefits
from the animal species that eats/threatens coral reefs.
Around 600 of the ISEF participants received awards and prizes for their innovative research, including 20 “Best of Category” winners, who each received a US$5,000 prize. Categories span the basic sciences, mathematics, engineering and specialized areas like embedded systems, computational technology and bioinformatics, and systems software.

From among these 20 “bests”,  the top prize, the Gordon E. Moore award of US$75,000 went to 17-year-old Raymond Wang of Canada for his mechanical engineering project – a new air inlet system for airplane cabins, which improves the availability of fresh air in the cabin while reducing pathogen inhalation concentrations.

Two runner-ups each received the Intel Foundation Young Scientist Awards of US$50,000 for projects in biomedical and health sciences, and environmental management. Nicole Ticea, 17, also of Canada, developed an inexpensive, disposable, easy-to-use testing device to combat the high rate of undiagnosed HIV infections in low-income communities, while Karan Jerath, 18, of Friendswood, Texas, refined and tested  a novel device that should allow an undersea oil well to rapidly and safely recover following a blowout.

The research year for ISEF 2016 has begun. High school student scientists all over the world have at most one year between January 1, 2015 and May 2016 to complete a research project that may qualify for the international competition in May next year. In the Philippines, K-9 to K-12 students will pass through three hurdles: division, regional and national fairs for that chance to go to ISEF 2016 in Phoenix, Arizona. .

Kenneth, Angelo, Carmelle, Marian and Thea with their Shout-Out poster.

Credits: Photos from ISEF Team Philippines 2015.

Monday, May 18, 2015

Preserving Filipino heritage against cultural ‘Ultrons’

Note: This photo-essay appeared in a slightly differenct version in the 15-21 May 2015 issue of FilAm Star, 'the newsparer for Filipinos in mainstream America' published in San Francisco, CA. This blogger/author is the Manila-based Special Photo/News Correspondent of the weekly paper.

The Avengers invaded the Philippines in April, and there was nothing else to see at the cinema houses for more than a week except their battle against Ultron, who was set to put mankind to extinction. The queues to the ticket counters were long, indicative of the tight grip of Hollywood on the cultural consciousness of almost every Filipino, parents and children alike.

Colorful ethnic costume against a
blown-up picture of indigenous people
'exhibited' at the St. Louis Exposition
in the 1900s.
Well, the Marvel-ous characters have not totally left when avengers of a different kind led by the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA) set out a program of activities to keep our national heritage alive in Filipino minds and hearts. It has the month-long celebration of National Heritage Month in key venues in Manila, Baguio and Cebu City as well as a year-long Taoid Heritange Program around the country.

The month of May has been National Heritage Month since 2003 when then President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo declared it as such through Proclamation No. 239.   The proclamation cited, among others, the “need to create in the people a consciousness, respect and love for the legacies of Filipino cultural history” and the “need to strengthen the people’s awareness of cultural heritage sites, structures and landscapes, and encourage their participation in the preservation of these cultural legacies through various activities.”

The Taoid Heritage Program echoes the intent of Proclamation 239 especially on the importance of cultural preservation after the devastation of various cultural landmarks, heritage sites and important cultural properties wrought by the Bohol earthquake and Typhoon Yolanda. It is basically an intervention program to assist local communities in the conservation of their own cultural heritage. This year’s theme is “New Fruits, Ancient Roots”.

Taoid is an Ilocano word for inheritance (mana, Tag.), which NCCA adopted to emphasize the importance of bequeathing culture and tradition to succeeding generations. Starting this month, NCCA will be going to the different communities in the country for cultural profiling and mapping.

The Spoliarium of Juan Luna is the star attraction of the 
National Museum: favorite selfie background.
The National Museum is a very effective partner of NCCA in the cultural education of the young generation of Filipinos. In May, it opens its doors for free to visitors as its share in celebrating heritage month. This is also true in the affiliated museums in the regions. The museum staff says that there has been a large turn-out of young visitors every viewing day, and we have seen a truly excited audience during our two visits.

Young visitors immediately encountertwo large canvasses: the “Spoliarium” of Juan Luna and “El Asesinato del Gobernador Bustamante” by Felix Resurrection Hidalgo; both won the top prizes in the Madrid Exposition of 1884. It doesn’t surprise that Luna gets the more avid attention of viewers, and the Spoliarium the favorite backdrop of photo-ops and selfies.

For many, the museum offers them their first encounter with a National Cultural Treasure (NCT), an object that possesses “outstanding historical, cultural, artistic and/or scientific value which is significant and important to the country and nation.”  The Luna and Hidalgo masterpieces are NCTs.

Viewers discuss the history of Philippine medicine as depicted
by Botong Francisco in four large canvasses.
Four large canvasses occupy one museum gallery. These comprise “The Progress of Medicine in the Philippines” by National Artist Carlos V. Francisco, the popular Botong of Angono, which depicts healing practices of pre-Spanish times, herbal medicine work of monk-scholars, introduction of American medicine, and markers of modern medicine today.   These were at the entrance of the Philippine General Hospital (PGH) for 58 years until they were replaced with photographic copies in 2011. The exchange deal was for the originals to go to the National Museum. The paintings were declared NCTs in 2011.

Lucky visitors may chance upon a guided tour and thus eavesdrop on stories surrounding some Luna paintings like the “Portrait of a Lady,” rumoured to be jinxed, and “Una Bulaqueña,” which many claim to be their grandmother because her identity is unknown. There’s not much fuss on “Feeding the Chicken” by Simon Flores at the gallery entrance. The Bulaqueña and the Flores are NCTs.

Many visitors take time for photo-ops at the gallery of sculptures by the Tampincos and by National Artist Guillermo Tolentino.

Mother's Revenge, small terra cotta
sculpture by Dr Jose Rizal.
At the Gallery showing Rizaliana, the selfies are with the bust sculpture or paintings. The small sculptures of Dr Jose Rizal get special attention. His “Mother’s Revenge” shows an angry dog trying to save her puppy from the crocodile’s mouth, and the message is not lost to viewers on Mother’s Day. This was declared NCT in 2008.

The displays on Baybayin tell the young generation that before the Spaniards came, the people already had their own system of writing. The University of Santo Tomas is the custodian of the most complete handwritten Baybayin documents. Many may not be aware of it, but they are looking at a baybayin letter in the Cultural Center and NCCA logos, among others. We chuckled at the sight of a young man with her girlfriend writing probably love notes to each other using the baybayin.

Ancient Baybayin letters with translation.
The ancient and traditional writing equipment were declared NCTs way back in1997.  Significant artefacts that contain ancient inscriptions were declared NCTs in 2010: the Laguna Copper-Plate Inscription (ca. 10th century), Butuan Metal Paleograph (14th-15th century A.D.), and the Calatagan Ritual Pot (14th-15th century A.D.). The last is the only one of its kind with an ancient script.

There’s one gallery containing religious artefacts from the Spanish colonial times. One of them is a NCT: a retablo (altar piece) from the Church of San Nicolas de Tolentino in Dimiao, Bohol. This reminds that several antique churches in Bohol were destroyed by the strong earthquake of 2013. Baclayon, for example, was a NCT and was nominated for designation as UNESCO Heritage sites.

The Dimiao altar piece made us recall our visit to the Saint Augustine Church of Paoay, Ilocos Norte, considered the most outstanding example of 'earthquake Baroque" in the Philippines. Its distinct architectural features are the enormous buttresses on the sides and at the back. Our great-great drandparenst were baptized here before they moved to central Zambales around 1838. The church was declared NCT in 1973 and a UNESCO heritage site in 1993.

The antiques churches of Paoay, Ilocos Norte and Masinloc, Zambales, both National Cultural Treasures.

Close to our hometown in Zambales is the San Andres Apostol Church of Masinloc town, another Baroque structure but built with coral stones. It's located within walking distance from the shores of the West Philippine Sea. It could be that the town's fishermen look back to it every time they head toward Scarborough Shoal (Bajo de Masinloc) for protection from Chinese coast guards, and for prayers for a bountiful catch. It became a NCT in 2001.

Four Sto Ninos at the Kristo Manila on exhibit at
the NCCA art gallery.
Part of the heritage month celebration of NCCA is a back-to-back exhibition dubbed “Art & Soul: 10 years of Kristo Manila and the Kristo Niño in Cebu City” comprising artworks depicting Christ’s Passion and various images inspired by the Santo Niño.   Kristo Niño commemorates the 450th year of the finding of the Image of the Santo Niño de Cebu and of the Agustinian presence in the Philippines (1565-2015), and the 50th anniversary of the Santo Niño Church as Basilica Minore (1965-2015). 

The sixth international arts festival was held in Tam-awan Village in Baguio City with the theme “A Global Cordillera: Heroes, Legends and Treasures.”

A musical event will be held on May 23 in Cebu City.  The second 2nd Taoid Heritage Concert is one of the closing events of the National Heritage Month.

Selfies appear to be good reminders of the richness of Philippine heritage to those who have walked through the National Museum galleries and those who have participated in the heritage month and Taoid programs. These can also be passed on with messages that the artefacts, structural landmarks and artistic expressions in the picture be safeguarded against cultural ‘Ultrons.’

Monday, May 11, 2015

Love, Labor, and the Loss / May 2015 in the Philippines

Note: This photo-essay appeared in a slightly different version in the 08-14 May 2015 issue of the FilAm Star, 'the newspaper for Filipinos in mainstream America' published in San Francisco,CA. This author/blogger is the Manila-based Special Photo/News Correspondent of the weekly paper.

“It’s May, it’s May, the merry month of May!” –  Queen Guinevere in Camelot, the musical

May Day, first day of the merry month this year was Friday and it being Labor Day, an official holiday, there was a long weekend for a great escape to the fresher and cooler air of the countryside. We were on the road early in the morning, northbound traffic on the expressways was heavy from the metropolis all the way to Zambales, and service stations along the way were all crowded with people also going on vacation.

In Metro Manila, the militant labor and activist sectors were marching under the scorching sun toward Liwasang Bonifacio, the plaza by the Pasig named after the proletarian hero.  Similar events in Baguio, Bicol and Davao were reported in the social media. They called for the enactment of a national minimum wage of Php16,000, and raised other issues such as the plight of OFWs like Mary Jane Veloso and US-Philippines relations like Oplan Bayanihan, among others. May Day ended with the burning of the effigy of President Benigno Aquino III on Mendiola.

Nuestra Señora de La Paz y Buen Viaje on board a banca for her 
fluvial procession in La Paz, San Narciso, Zambales on the first 
Saturday of May. 
May Day happened to be the eve of the moveable feast, the first Saturday of the month, of the patroness of our coastal barangay in San Narciso, Zambales, the Nuestra Senora de La Paz y Buen Viaje, who we reverentially call Apo La Paz. The barangay is named in her honor – La Paz.

The barangay takes the religious aspect of the feast day seriously. An early morning holy mass is traditionally held along the shore before the Apo La Paz image is mounted on a boat for her fluvial procession on the West Philippine Sea.  We were on board the boat that carried her. The boat is big and fitted to reach Scarbarough Shoal. A procession around the barangay was held in the early evening. Between these two religious activities, the fishing folks engaged in sea games: swimming and boat races, while their homes were open for feasts galore. In the old days, visitors came for the servings of dried fish called dalangdang, almost a rarity on the fiesta table these days.

May is fiesta time for supplications and thanksgiving in many parts of the country as well. The famous ones are in the tourism map: Pahiyas in Lukban, Quezon and Kalabaw Festival in Pullilan, Bulacan, which fall on the same date, 15 May, the feast of San Isidro Labrador, which is followed two days later by the three-day pintakasi in Obando for their three patron saints: Santa Clara, San  Pascual Baylon and the Virgin of Salambao.

In Lukban, the houses are adorned with the harvests of the owner, fruits and vegetables, or products of their labor such as bags or hats from pandan leaves or anahaw, together with colorful rice kippings that look like leaves or petals. In Pullilan, the carabaos are stars of the day when they are made to kneel in front of the church during the procession. In Obando, people dance before San Pascual Baylon (17 May), patron for child bearing, Santa Clara (18 May), patroness of conceiving mothers, and the Virgin of Salambao (19 May), patroness of fishermen and farmers.

The calendars of villages, towns and cities in the country will certainly have the traditional Flores de Mayo and the Santacruzan celebrations. While the Flores remains very religious in character as involves floral offerings in church altars, the Santacruzan, to the dismay of church authorities, has been converted into other spectacle events.

UP Diliman Parada ng Parangal led by Chancellor Michael L. Tan 
looked like a Santracruzan with decorated arches.
The University of the Philippines Diliman (UPD) drew inspiration from the Santacruzan to open the Linggo ng Parangal on 04 May, when it held the Parada ng Parangal to celebrate “the triumphs and accomplishments of its constituents.”

UPD adapted the form, hence, like the Santacruzan, the parade featured sagalas, women in evening gowns, and escorts walking around the academic oval beneath hand-carried bamboo arches adorned with flowers. The pairs represented the 26 degree-granting units of the university.  

To lend a festive air to the parade, there were marching bands and the Higantes from Angono. The musical nuances of a Philippine fiesta were provided by a rondalla and dance performances inspired by the karakol, the traditional devotional dancing procession.

The Linggo ng Parangal is the university’s week-long celebration of the excellence, accomplishments and dedicated service of its faculty, researchers, students, administrative staff and community.

On 06 May, the university held the Parangal sa Mga Mag-aaral to honor students who have earned a general weighted average of not lower than 1.45 for the last two semesters (the University Scholars), students who have distinguished themselves in various fields, and graduates who have made the top 10 and those who passed in various licensure examinations.

Some of the sagalas, escorts and participants in the UPD Parada ng Parangal.
Top left to bottom right: College of Engineering, School of Urban & Regional
Planning, College of Arts & Letters, College of Home Economics, School of
Library & Information Studies, Institute of Islamic Studies, and College of
Human Kinetics.

The University conferred appreciation and recognition of the dedicated service of employees who retired in 2014, and those who have been in active service for 40 years. A Parangal sa mga Retirado at Gawad Paglilingkod was held for this purpose on 07 May.

The Gawad Tsanselor held on 08 May was the highlight of the week. This highest recognition bestowed by the University for excellent and outstanding accomplishments in 2014 was given to 13 individuals: three professors, four researchers, one researcher in Filipino, four students and an administrative staff. This year, a community within the UPD campus also received the award.

The Natatanging Guro awardees were: Dr. Rizalinda L. de Leon and Dr. Henry N. Adorna, both from the College of Engineering, and Dr. Jose Ernie C. Lope from the Institute of Mathematics. The Natatanging REPS (Research and Extension Professional Staff) recipients were: Frederick C. Delfin (Natural Sciences Research Institute), Miguel Paolo P. Reyes (Third World Studies Center) and Sharon Maria S. Esposo-Betan (College of Engineering Library). This was a posthumous award to Dr. Amelia E. Punzalan (National Institute for Science and Mathematics Education Development).

The UP Filipiniana dance numbers were inspired by 
the karakol, traditional devotional dancing procession.
The Natatanging Mag-aaral awardees were:  Jhesset Thrina O. Enano (College of Mass Communication), Raphael Aaron A. Letaba (C.E.A. Virata School of Business), John Paul M. Sawali (College of Engineering) and Tiffany Grace C. Uy (College of Science).

Dr. Apolonio B. Chua was Natatanging Mananaliksik sa Filipino while Pablo C. Navarro was Natatanging Kawani. Both are from the College of Arts and Letters. Hardin ng Dona Aurora was chosen as Natatanging Pook.

The Gawad Tsanselor trophy is a sculpture of the Oblation as a work in progress. The inspiration for the trophy is Michaelangelo’s “Slaves” sculpture. It symbolizes the “continuing pursuit of excellence and continuing service to the University and the nation. It also means that a recipient’s bond with the University is never ending.”

Alas, there was no trophy or championship belt for the “continuing pursuit of excellence” on the boxing ring for Manny Pacquiao, dubbed the ‘Pambansang Kamao,’ after he was outpunched by Floyd Mayweather during the ‘fight of the century’ ('dud of the century' to the disappointed) in Las Vagas on Sunday, 03 May, Manila time.  Many Filipinos still find it hard to accept the judges’ unanimous decision and that terrible loss to Pinoy pride. 

Monday, May 4, 2015

“Are you going to Scarborough Shoal?”

Note: This photo-essay appeared in the 01-07 May 2015 issue of the FilAm Star, 'the newspaper for Filipinos in mainstream America' published in San Francisco, CA. This author/blogger is the Manila-based Special News/Photo Correspondent of the weekly paper.
Landsat-7 image of Scarborough Shoal as of Feb 2010. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

A resounding ‘Yes!’ from the fishing folks of Infanta, Pangasinan and Masinloc, Zambales, according to TV news reports, who set sail on their boats loaded with ice but who will come back by the first of May, because they are also fans of Manny Pacquiao and they do not want to miss the fall of Floyd Mayweather on 03 May, Sunday morning, Philippine time. [Note: This was written several days before the fight.]

The Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) advised our fishermen to stay away within four nautical miles from Karburo, the fisherfolk’s derivative name from Scarborough Shoal. The bureau does not want a repeat of earlier incidents in April where fishing boats from Pangasinan, Zambales and Bataan were chased away by the Chinese coast guard with water cannons.

These brave souls know that it is a cat-and-mouse game with the Chinese maritime forces out there at their favorite Karburo fishing ground, which takes them almost half a day or 12 hours to reach.

Fleet of fishing boats from Infanta, Pangasinan heading to Bajo de Masinloc (top)
and a fishing boat damaged by Chinese water cannons during the chase from 
Bajo de Masinloc (bottom) Screen imaged from GMA 7 Balitanghali news video.

The shoal is nearest to Palauig, Zambales but it is a part of Masinloc town, hence, the other name Bajo de Masinloc. It is 125 nautical miles from the country’s coastline, it is within the 200-nm Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and the Philippine continental shelf. China obviously does not recognize that Scarborough is an integral part of our territory.

We visited Masinloc in the summer of 2013, and we found large fishing boats that looked like these had not been out to sea for a very long time. We heard that some fishermen have sold their boats and sought other kinds of work. They explained that they could no longer fish at the shoal because the Chinese keep chasing them away.  China had deployed its coast guard since the year before to bar them from Bajo de Masinloc and the surrounding waters.

The hot dispute with China at Bajo de Masinloc started in April 2012 when “a Philippine naval vessel approached a group of Chinese fishing vessels near the shoal and boarded them for inspection,” according to the narrative in ‘The West Philippine Sea [WPS] Primer’ of the University of the Philippines. “The Chinese fishermen were discovered to have illegally harvested live corals and captured sharks and giant clams. Ships of the paramilitary Chinese Maritime Surveillance agency moved quickly to prevent the Philippine Navy from apprehending the fishermen. The Philippines withdrew its naval vessel as ships from the civilian Philippine Coast Guard (PCG) and Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) arrived, as part of the country’s effort to de-escalate the tensions, even as the Chinese fishermen were extracted by the ships sent by China. This incident led to a two-month long standoff between government vessels of both sides, as neither side wanted to leave the shoal. At the height of the standoff in May, nearly 80 Chinese vessels were sighted in Bajo de Masinloc and its vicinity.” During that standoff, even the archaeological survey team of the Philippine National Museum was “harassed and intimidated by Chinese Maritime Surveillance ships as well as aircraft.”

We are from one of the coastal towns of Zambales province, and we know that the shoal is a very important fishing ground to the people of the coastal villages of the province. Fishing is their major source of livelihood. Subic, Candelaria, Masinloc and Sta. Cruz towns have fishing ports. Thus, it is not unusual to hear fish vendors in Metro Manila markets that their stocks came from these Zambales towns.

The shoal is the only large reef structure west of Luzon. It ensures ecological diversity in the WPS; it is the rich feeding and breeding ground for all kinds of fish and marine species.

The WPS Primer says, “The potential yield of fisheries resources in offshore Northern Zambales including Bajo de Masinloc is about 5,021.69 mt annually.  121 species from 33 fish families may be caught in its waters; among them are yellowfin tuna, skipjack and shortfin scad.” 

The WPS is a rich fishing area. Fishermen have artificial reefs called payaos some 150-190 kilometers away from the coastline to catch tuna and other deep-sea fishes. The promise of bigger catch is still at Karburo, hence, the fishermen resort to cat-and-mouse tactic to get there: they  “paddle in canoes to sneak into the lagoon - teeming with pricey yellowfin and skipjack tuna, red grouper, blue marlin and lobster - while their mother boats hide from a distance,” according to a fisherman’s account in a news story.

As an aside, the WPS Primer says, “Available data on the geology of the area indicate that there is little probability of finding any petroleum in Bajo de Masinloc or its immediate vicinity. However, massive sulfides and cobalt-rich crusts are expected in the seamounts of the Bajo de Masinloc area.”

The country’s interests in Bajo de Masinloc are related to national security, environmental and food security. The shoal is almost adjacent to the major ports of Manila and Subic, hence, its importance to national security especially with regard to shipping from these two large ports.

As we write this, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Summit in Kuala Lumpur had ended, and the statement issued after the closing ceremony has not been published yet.

Reuters though has reported on the draft statement, which raises the "serious concerns" of some leaders over the land reclamations that have "eroded trust and confidence and may undermine peace, security and stability in the South China Sea.”

"We reaffirmed the importance of maintaining peace, stability, security and freedom of navigation in and over-flight over the South China Sea," the statement reportedly said.

Two modern Chinese maps dated 1929 and c1933 show that Hainan Island is the 
southernmost territory of China. (Detail from the Catalogue of the cartographic
exhibit on the Historical Facts & Lies in the WPS).

If only to inspire every Filipino in the fight for sovereignty over Bajo de Masinloc, the cartographic exhibit that came about from Justice Antonio T. Carpio’s lecture on ‘Historical Facts and Historical Lies in the West Philippine Sea’ declares: “All the maps of the Philippines, from 1636 to 1940, period of 304 years, consistently show Scarborough Shoal, whether named or unnamed, as part of the Philippines.”

These two ancient maps dated 1636 and 1650 show that Bajo de Masinloc
is part of Philippine territory. (Detail from the Catalogue of the cartographic 
exhibit on the Historical Facts & Lies in the WPS).