Saturday, November 18, 2017

Juan Luna's 'Death of Cleopatra' (1881) goes to Singapore


As first seen at the Exposition of Fine Arts in Madrid in 1881.
Source: La Ilustracion espanola y americana (30 June 1881)

News photo of La Muerte after 136 years.
Source: Philippine Daily Inquirer (16 November 2017)

Famous Filipino artist Juan Luna was first noticed in Spain because of his work La Muerte de Cleopatra (The Death of Cleopatra), competition entry number 379 in the Exposition of Fine Arts in Madrid that opened on 18 May 1881.

This historical painting was awarded a silver medal but it has never been seen again. The Museo Nacional del Prado kept it for 136 years. Luna fans will have to fly to Singapore to see it on exhibit at the National Gallery Singapore from 16 November 2017 until 11 March next year.

We first saw the news photo reproduction of La Muerte painting in the 30 June 1881 issue of La Ilustracion espanola y americana, a Madrid magazine, and read a review of it and other paintings in the Madrid exposition in the 22 June issue.

The reviewer said that Luna's work, which was in the fourth exhibition sala, caught the fixed attention of viewers; and he called the newcomer in the Spanish art circle as "energetic, frank, brilliant."

"The subject of the painting," he wrote, "is the death of that queen of Egypt whom Horace called the fatal monster, and Virgil a cursed woman; that one which Michelet said does not deserve mercy or admiration. .. In golden bed lies the corpse of Cleopatra, adorned with pharaonic magnificence; the slave Iras, also dead, is in front of the bed; the black slave Charmion, who has just placed the royal crown on her lady's head, falling at that moment, as if struck by lightning." The venomous asp had just done its job.

There is something missing, he added. And he took it from Plutarch: the emissaries of Octavio who were able to enter the mausoleum where "Caesar's and Anthony's mistress" and her slaves locked themselves in. One of the emissaries was supposed to have shouted to Charmion that Cleopatra does not deserve the crown, but the slave shouted back that she's most worthy of it, being the daughter of kings.

In the composition, the reviewer said, "one can see the faithful Charmion falling to the ground but you can not see or even guess that there were Roman intruders.

He noted that the many exuberant details on the canvas, and even the beautiful background, greatly distracted from the main theme of the work.

He concluded, however, that the painter is a promising luminary in the Spanish art scene.

Juan Luna would make a bigger splash in the Spanish media in 1884: the highest honor and praises his Spolarium gained, two news magazines having him in their covers, with one of the cover stories written by his friend Jose Rizal. In later years, reproductions of his works were featured including the paintings he did on the prison walls when he was incarcerated for rebellion in Manila. 


References:

  1. Review of La Muerte in La Ilustracion Espanola y Americana. 25:23(406). 22 June1881. 
  2. Painting reproduction in La Ilustracion Espanola y Americana. 25:24(415). 30 June 1881.

Sunday, November 12, 2017

"Sangre Roja" - association of San Narciso public school teachers in the 1900's

There was no Gabaldon school building yet in San Narciso in 1910. The first one would be built in 1913 although the Gabaldon law (Act 1801), which appropriated Pesos 1-Million for constructing schools based on the designs of architect William Parsons all over the country, was enacted in 1907.


Male teachers, provincial representatives in a PTA event, 1909. Two of them are from Zambales.
Source: Cover of The Filipino Teacher, June, 1909..

The public school teachers of San Narciso though organized a society they called "Sangre Roja." There could have been a strong reason for them to adopt that name, which means "red blood" but which we can not seem to deduce from what "The Filipino Teacher" reported as "the tendency of this society [of being] (1) Recreative, and (2) Instructive."

"The Filipino Teacher" was the monthly magazine of the Philippine Teachers' Association (PTA) edited in English, Spanish and Tagalog. The San Narciso teachers belonged to the Zambales Teachers' Association, which became the provincial committee of the PTA in 1908. 

In their organizational meeting held in the hall of the Presidencia, the "Sange Roja" elected the following officers:  President - Mr. Victor Amos Altardino, Secretary - Mr. Marcos Fuerte,       Treasurer - Miss Maria Guidilla, and Vocales [Board members]: Mr. Gervacio Fedalizo, Miss Marcelina Academia, Miss Perfecta Amos, Miss Francisca Firme, Mr. Alejandro Dumlao, Mr. Esteban Guidilla.

That meeting was followed by an "interesting program", according to the magazine report which featured the following: 


1.  Preliminary talk by the President of the association “Sangre Roja” Mr. Victor Amos Altardino.

2.  Recitation, the Book of the Year, by Miss Maria Villanueva

3.  Flores Orientales, Waltz by the band of the Municipality

4.  Conference about the important [sic] of Poultry Raising by Mr. Victorio Posadas

5.  Morena Carmen, Waltz by the Band of the Municipality.

6.  Debate. Resolved that it is more beneficial for a girl to stay at home than to go to school

Affirmative – Miss Perfecta Amos, Mr. Benito Ebuen, and Mr. Apolonio Academia
Negative – Miss Marcelina Academia, Mr. Donato Amon and Mr. Pablo Cawagas

7.   Star Spangle[d] Banner and Marcha Nacional Filipina

We read several school programs in the early 1900/s in other places that featured a debate. This could have been an exercise for mastering the English language, an oral test for both the teachers and their students.

Our Narcisenian teachers of 1910 could have been on the job ever since the Americans introduced the new educational system in 1901. Some were qualified to teach after going through the crash course in the English language; others, after passing the Intermediate school (Grade 7), and later, completion of the high school course.. The Zambales High School in Iba was established in 1908, and if there were any Narcisenians there, they graduated in 1912. Eventually, graduates of the Normal School became the leading figures in the school system.

In those early years, there were more male teachers than female. Pensionados to the U.S. were mostly men. 'Gender-fair' was not yet in the vocabulary, and the salary was not equal between the two sexes..

Salaries were either insular (from the national government) or municipal (from the town coffers). The American teachers were paid more than their Filipino counterparts. Every time the Americans were given a raise, the Filipino teachers complained through "The Filipino Teacher" of the "unfair" treatment, and wondered when they would also enjoy the "limpak limpak" salary the Americans got. The Tagalog phrase was from an article in the Tagalog section of the magazine.

Although "the service is open to both sexes, however, on identical terms, and in many provinces, the women teachers receive an average larger salary than the men."  In 1904, for example, "the average salary for a native teacher [was] highest in the city of Manila ... P 72.67 per month for men teachers and P70.16 for women teachers; and it is lowest in Paragua [Palawan] .. P7.50 for the men and P 7.75 for the women. ... [In] Zambales, P9.92 for men and P11.37 for women." 

Thus in 1904, the maestros of San Narciso received an annual salary of  P119.04, while the maestras were paid  P136.44, The Americanos received more than a thousand pesos each.


Note: The teachers in the picture as numbered: 1.Mr. Anastacio Quijano (Gen. Secretary of The Filipino Teacher); 2. Mr. Bernardo Elayda (Zambales); 3.Mr. Francisco de Mesa (Pampanga); 4. Mr. Ciriaco de Leon (Bulacan); 5. Mr. Guillermo Santos (Pres., Executive Board); 6. Mr. Leoncio R. Gonzales (Advisor and Gen. Secretary Protempore); 7. Mr. Militon Cruz (Bulacan); 8. Mr. Emilio Pestaño (Manila); 9. Mr. Hugo de la Torre (Batangas); 10. Mr. Pablo de Guia (Cavite); 11. Mr. Miguel Nicdao (Pampanga); 12. Mr. Pedro Manalo (Rizal);13. Mr. Teodorico Bauson (Pangasinan);14.  Mr. Brigido Santos (Rizal); 15. Mr. Quirino Perez (Pangasinan); 16.  Mr. Zosimo Topacio (Cavite); and 17.  Mr. Marciano Peralta (Zambales).

References:

1. Report on "Sangre Roja" in The Filipino Teacher, 4:3(4), August, 1910.


2. Report on the approval of  Zambales Teachers' Association as provincial committee of PTA in The Filipino Teacher, 2:6(6), December 1908.


3. Annual Report of the General Superintendent of Education. September, 1904. Manila: Bureau of Public Printing. pp 17-25.


Saturday, October 28, 2017

Filipino Veterans receive the Congressional Gold Medal

Source: U.S. Mint

After 75 years, the United States finally recognized the Filipino veterans who fought with the American forces during the Second World War.

The Congressional Gold Medal was finally collectively awarded to the Filipino Veterans of World War II on 25 October 2017 at the Emancipation Hall of the U.S. Capitol. 

These Filipino Veterans served honorably in an active duty status between 26 July 1941 and 31 December 1946 under the command of the United States Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) within the Philippine Commonwealth Army, the Philippine Scouts, the Philippine Constabulary, recognized guerrilla units, the New Philippine Scouts, the First Filipino Infantry Regiment, the Second Filipino Infantry Battalion (Separate), or the First Reconnaissance Battalion, including those commanding or serving as U.S. military officers or enlisted soldiers.

Ceres Cawagas Busa receiving her father's medal from MGen. Antonio Taguba, US Army, ret.
(Photo courtesy of Sonny & Ceres Busa)

A personal note: one of the posthumous awardees was one of my father's good buddies, a popular teacher in my youth, Death March survivor Pantaleon Cawagas. His daughter Ceres Cawagas Busa received his award from retired US Army Major General Antonio Taguba during the ceremony.

The medal was designed and struck by the United States Mint. Its obverse side displays part of the range and breadth of the Filipino Veterans’ service in World War II. It shows a Filipino scout, a Filipino infantry regiment officer, and a guerrilla soldier. In the foreground is an infantryman on guard, symbolizing the soldiers’ fierce determination. “FILIPINO VETERANS OF WORLD WAR II” is inscribed.

The reverse side displays both the American and Filipino World War II-era flags. The design includes these inscriptions: “UNITED STATES ARMY FORCES IN THE FAR EAST” along the top border, “DUTY TO COUNTRY” and the key locations of “BATAAN & CORREGIDOR,” “LUZON,” “LEYTE,” and “SOUTHERN PHILIPPINES” in the central area, “ACT OF CONGRESS 2016” along the bottom, and upon a scroll between the flags, the significant years of “1941,” “1945,” and “1946.”

The 114th Congress of the U.S. passed the Public Law No. 114-265 or the Filipino Veterans of World War II Congressional Gold Medal Act of 2015 on 14 December 2016. Section 4 of this law provides that “President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall make appropriate arrangements for the award of a single Congressional Gold Medal to the Filipino Veterans of World War II in recognition of their dedicated service during World War II. The medal, following its award, shall be given to the Smithsonian Institution where it will be available for research and display. It is the sense of Congress that the Smithsonian Institution should make the gold medal available for display elsewhere, particularly at other appropriate locations associated with the Filipino Veterans of World War II.”

The Congressional Gold Medal is one of the highest civilian awards bestowed by the U.S. Congress as an expression of gratitude for distinguished achievements and contributions by individuals, groups, or institutions.

In recent years, the Medal has been awarded to recognize the services rendered during World War II of the 100th Infantry Battalion, the 442nd Regimental Combat, and the Military Intelligence Service (awarded in 2010); First Special Service Force (2013); Members of the Doolittle Tokyo Raiders (2014); WWII members of the Civil Air Patrol (2014); and “Monuments Men” (2014).


P.S. A 3-inch bronze copy of the medal can be bought from US Mint at $39.95.


Friday, October 6, 2017

Formal education in my old hometown, San Narciso in Zambales

The names of 18 schoolboys and their fathers from the 
barangay of Don Clemente Jose in the 1846 petition.
(Source: Ereccion de Pueblos. SDS-14126. National 
Archives of the Philippines)
We can say that the documented history of formal education in San Narciso started on 22 February 1846 when the fathers of 104 Alasiis schoolboys sent a petition to Fr. Nicolas Martinez, parish priest of Yba and Vicar Forane of Zambales, imploring that they be allowed to hire maestro Don Julian Dias Ronquillo of Subic. 

The fathers wanted their sons to be taught their Christian duties-- ‘walang nalalaman unang-una sa katungkulan ng taong Christiano’—but they were worried about their safety as they walk the miles to the school in Cabangan. Hence, they wanted a maestro-in-residence.

Don Julian became the first teacher of Alasiis and of San Narciso town after its creation from the five Ilocano barrios between Cabangan and Uguit.

Education of the ‘Indians’ was a directive of the royal decree of 05 June 1574. This was iterated by the Raon Ordinance No. 93 of 26 February 1768: “it is strictly ordered that the [the provincial governors] request [the priests] … to establish schoolmasters in all villages, who shall teach the Indians to read and write in Spanish, and the Christian doctrine and other prayers.”

Almost a century later, the general system of primary schools in the country was established by the royal decree of 20 December 1863. The Normal School was founded; secondary schools and colleges followed.

The escuelas, separate for boys (niños) and girls (niñas), were under the control of the municipal government. There were no school infrastructures as we see today.

Teachers were appointed by the authorities in Manila. One of the early ‘maestros de escuela publica de instruccion primaria [teachers of the public school for primary education]’ of San Narciso was Don Jose Ferriols, a 23-years old Spanish mestizo from San Felipe who graduated from the Normal School. He had taught for three years when he was appointed to the post in San Narciso in August 1871.

Don Juan Posadas, another graduate of the Normal School, was appointed as the town school teacher in April 1874 with a monthly salary of sixty pesetas. He served uninterrupted for thirteen years, which was more than the mandatory ten for Normal graduates. In 1888, he asked permission to resign because of poor health: chronic anemia and palpitation of the heart.

There were women teachers for the girls like Dna. Anastacia Garcia (1870s) and Dna. Telesfora Calimlim (1880s).

In 1896, Don Simeon de Villanueva y Pobre, a native of San Narciso, proposed to establish a private school here. He spent five years of secondary education at the University of Sto. Tomas from 1880 to 1885.

“For many years,” he wrote to the Governor-General, “it was my constant desire to open in San Narciso, my own hometown, a private school for adults, teaching in it the rudimentary elements of primary education, but putting more interest in the teaching of the Spanish language.” His petition was endorsed by the parish priest Fr. Francisco Moreno and the principalia headed by Capitan Municipal Rufino Fernandez. Don Simeon’s dream was not realized.

The American occupation brought a new educational system with English as medium for instruction. In 1902, the department of public instruction was re-organized as the Bureau of Education.  Teachers from America--collectively called 'Thomasites'--were spread throughout the archipelago to head school districts and to teach using primers and textbooks from America.   

The Americans set up the prototype of Philippine schools designed by William Parsons. The Philippine Assembly Act 1801 in 1908 appropriated US1-million to construct the so-called Gabaldon schoolhouses named after Assemblyman Isauro Gabaldon, author of that law.

Gabaldon school building plan of West Central (San Rafael-Natividad) Elem. School.
(Source: Bulletin No. 37-1912. School Buildings and Grounds. Bureau of Education)

The first public school building of San Narciso was for the ‘Central School’ built with an appropriation of P5,000 in 1912. It followed the bureau’s standard plan No. 10. This could be the Gabaldon building of West Central (now San Rafael-Natividad Elem. School), the first public school of the town according to oral and written accounts.

Construction begun on 03 April 1913 under a local foreman. “The building was completed inside of four calendar months at a total cost of P18,602.88,” the Bureau of Public Works reported, “including all surcharges, by administration, under a native foreman, the estimated cost being P21,000 and the appropriation P20,000.”  Don Teodoro R. Yangco, a well-known philanthropist of that time, donated P5,000 as part of the cost.

The school was formally inaugurated on 28 November 1913. It was a big event, according to the Bureau of Public Works Bulletin: “It being school holidays from the 27th to the end of the month, all the students of the Iba high school, over 200 strong, the pupils from Yangco school, San Felipe, and Olongapo, and a big crowd of citizens from all over the province and some provincial officials, all came down to San Narciso to witness the grand dedication of the school. … The most notable events were the various athletic meets, in which the students showed no less school spirit in rooting and singing for their teams than in the [United] States, and the elder folks forgot their customary visits to the cockpits. “

Secondary education was offered later, and those who desired it initially went to the provincial high school in Iba.

Alma mater of Pres. Ramon Magsaysay.

The first private high school of the town—Zambales Academy—was established in 1922. This was brought about by the difficulty of transportation to Iba, the increasing number of students tending to crowd the provincial high school, and the inability of that high school to accommodate all those who want to get a secondary education.

After the Second World War, Zambales Academy opened a college department offering education and secretarial courses. Its education graduates taught at elementary schools in the town and province.

In the late 1960’s, the school was sold to the joint venture of the Philippine Episcopal Church and the Philippine Independent Church.

The enterprising couple--Luis Abiva and his wife Asuncion Quiray—put up the Abiva High School before the outbreak of World War II. After the war, according to reports, Mrs. Abiva allowed a group of prominent town citizens to operate the school, renamed San Narciso Cooperative Commercial High School.  It became Zambales Commercial High School later, which was changed to Magsaysay Memorial Institute (MMI) in honor of Pres. Ramon Magsaysay after his death.

The Columbans acquired MMI in 1951. This was the first of the Catholic schools that the religious order established from Olongapo to Sta. Cruz. In 1962, the high school was incorporated into the Magsaysay Memorial College (MMC) with the addition of the elementary and college department.

The curricular structure of the elementary and secondary schools has transformed into the K-12 program, which added two years—the senior high school—to old system. These additional years provide pre-college tracks for the students to choose from: ABM (Accountancy, Business and Management), STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics), HUMSS (Humanities and Social Science), and General Academic. Other tracks enable the students to work after graduation: Arts and Design, Sports and TVL.

Secondary education is offered by the private Zambales Academy and Magsaysay Memorial College and the public national high schools of La Paz and Namatacan. 

While MMC provides viable collegiate courses like education for high school graduates, the Philippine Merchant Academy (PMMA) beckons to those who are inclined to pursue careers in marine transportation and marine engineering.

Graduating cadet from San Narciso in PMMA Class 2017.

PMMA, which relocated from Fort Bonifacio to San Narciso in 1998, dates back to 1820 when it was created as Escuela Nautica de Manila. Juan Luna, its most famous alumnus, was 17 years old when he graduated as Piloto de Altos Mares (Pilot of the High Seas) in 1874. Its transformation from Philippine Nautical School to PMMA in 1963 has produced midshipmen/women, and merchant marine officers in shipboard and offshore positions as shipping executives and technical consultants.

Today, there are fifteen public, and four private and sectarian, elementary schools. Three public national, and two private, schools offer secondary education. High school graduates of the town and other municipalities go to MMC for collegiate courses, or to PMMA (if they pass the rigid entrance examinations) for maritime studies.


Education has brought Narcisenians to prominence here in the country and in foreign lands. Their contribution, in many ways, have brought changes in the social, cultural and economic fabric of San Narciso. 


Tuesday, October 3, 2017

The golden gala mantle of Our Lady of La Naval de Manila


Rafael Casal and Arnold Reyes designed and 

executed, respectively, the new mantle of Our Lady 
for the La Naval of 2016.
In the inventory of Santo Domingo Church properties in 1750, according to our friend historian Romeo B. Galang in his Cultural History of Santo Domingo (2013), only the images of Our Lady and San Vicente had big silver frontal or pechero.

He also wrote that the 'the gala vestments of the images were rarely seen by the public [and] were used only during important feasts such as La Naval procession and the octave preceding it.' 

The gold vestments of the image of Our Lady of La Naval could have started during the feast of October 1890. Galang wrote --

"[O]n the Sunday before the high mass, the image of the Virgin was borne in procession, accompanied by the images of San Pio V and Santo Domingo, richly vested in traje de tisu de oro [vestments of gold thread].  

"Only one other image of the La Naval procession – that of San Antonino de Florencia – was known to have golden vestments."

In his caption of the picture of the mantle, 'the gala mantle of Our Lady, made of woven gold threads ornately decorated with brocades, is still preserved, and was used during the Canonical Coronation of the image of 1907,' he wrote.

The mantle as seen from the back.

By tradition, the image of Our Lady has always been called the "Santo Rosario"; hence, the mantle is also referred to by that name: the Santo Rosario Gala Mantle.

Last year, the Dominicans marked the 800th anniversary of their order (Order of Preachers). In celebration, a new gala mantle was commissioned that would harmonize with the silver frontal, which dates back to the nineteenth century.  

Artistic details of the mantle embroidery.

Artist Rafael Casal designed in 2015, and it took almost three months to make the full-scale drawing; and actor Arnold Reyes and his Bordados de Manila executed the intricate design for nine months. We were able to talk with these two artists about their work before the start of the grand procession last year.

That new gala mantle which Our Lady wore during the October 2016 procession was described as of 'golden hue and embroidered lavishly with gold thread befitting a Queen. Design elements such as ribbons and garlands were culled from Western sources and melded with a local motif, the tamborin. Certain components rendered in high relief, possess almost sculptural effect.'

Furthermore: 'The mantle is replete with symbols pertinent to the history of the Dominican Order and perhaps devotion to the Holy Rosary. Eight tiers of celebratory swags (symbolic of eight centuries of the Order) intertwine with festoons and garlands of roses (alluding to the devotion to the Holy Rosary). These are held together by a plethora of flowing ribbons. Hanging from these ribbons are tamborin medallions bearing seals of the BVM, the Order, the Holy See and the city of Manila. Alternating with the swags, draped tamborin beads call to mind the countless rosaries offered by devotees for over four centuries since the arrival of the first Dominican missionaries in our country.'

It was described as 'a testament to the unwavering devotion and fidelity of  ... the Camarera of Our Lady to the Santo Rosario. It is also a shining example of Philippine artistry and craftsmanship at its best!


References: 
  • Souvenir Program. Maria: Ina ng Awa. La Naval de Manila 2016 / September 29-October 9, 2016. Sto. Domingo Church, Quezon City.
  • Galang, Romeo B. (2013). A Cultural History of Santo Domingo. Manila: UST Publishing House.




Monday, September 18, 2017

The 32nd International Coastal Cleanup day in San Narciso, Zambales

The 32nd ICC on the coast of  host town  San Narciso, Zambales.

The Philippines joined the annual global observance of  the 32nd International Coastal Cleanup (ICC) Day on Saturday, 16 September 2017 with the theme, “Together for our Ocean”.

Zambales was the focal province for the national observance led by ICC Philippines. San Narciso, our hometown, with an estimated 11,000 volunteers from its seventeen barangays, played host to provincial, regional and national government officials, CSOs and NGOs. 

This year, the aim was to surpass the 2015 number of volunteers but also to promote Zambales as an environment-focused province. Hence, the vision of creating an e-cropolis in the vicinity of Mt. Tapulao in Palauig, a mountain area cooler than Baguio, an ideal site for retirement houses of local and foreign seniors, and for an international convention center.

Students and teachers walked a kilometer from the town plaza to the cleanup site.

San Narciso town was conveniently accessible to the volunteers from outside the province being midway between Subic and Iba. It is the surfing capital of the province. It is also implements a marine biodiversity management flagship program-- marine turtle conservation and protection, the only one in Zambales--and this month happens to be the start of the nesting season of the Olive ridley species..

This year’s ICC Day is the fourteenth observance in the Philippines after its commitment through Presidential Proclamation No. 470 issued on 15 September 2003. There was no nationwide observance last year, however, because the government declared a state of lawlessness. The Ocean Observancy accepted the cancellation for the safety of volunteers.

ICC observance in the Philippines in September 2015.
(Source: ICC Philippines 2015 Report)
In the 30th ICC Day in 2015 though, the Philippines was the top participating countty with 256,904 volunteers from 47 provinces, who cleaned up 1,162.8 kms of coastline, collecting 301,772 kgs of trash in the process. Of the total number of volunteers, 308 used watercraft, and 296 went underwater, to collect debris.

Zambales was number one in the top 10 of volunteers, followed by Batangas, Metro Manila, La Union, Cebu, Cavite, Antique, Catanduanes, Pangasinan and Leyte, in that order.

The province had 89,042 volunteers who collected 8,902 bags of trash that weighed approximately 61,407 kg from an estimated 372.1 km-long coastland, the longest in the list. The total of debris items collected was 5,392,915. Of these, the top ten debris amounted to 3,394,304 items comprising from the largest to the smallest: food wrappers (1,208,950), cigarette butts, straws/stirrers, other plastic bags, grocery plastic bags, plastic bottle caps, plastic take-out/away containers, plastic beverage bottles, plastic lids, and plastic cups and plates (140,545).

Last year’s 31st ICC Day, with the non-participation of the Philippines, the top three participating countries were the United States (183,321 volunteers), Hongkong (76,311), and Canada (24,475).

The Top 20 participating countries in ICC Day 2016 and weird items found in the marine debris.
(Source: Ocean Observancy's ICC 2017 Report)

There were 504,583 volunteers from 112 countries and locations who collected 8,346,055 kgs of marine debris from along 24,136 kms of beaches, coasts and waterways, comprising 13,840,398 debris items.

Top 10 items collected in the Philippines on ICC Day 2015.
Source: ICC Philippines 2015 Report.

The ICC was initiated by Ocean Conservancy in 1986 is the largest volunteer effort held annually every third Saturday of September to deal with trash, one of the biggest threats to the oceans.

On ICC Day, volunteers around the world remove trash and debris from beaches, waterways and other water bodies, identify the source of the debris, and record information on the debris collected. These activities can ‘change behaviors that cause pollution [and] raise awareness on the extent of the marine debris problem,’ and data analysis of results can ‘aid in better-informed policy decisions and improved solid waste management programs.’

Volunteers record the kind and material composition of objects they collect. The information is ‘instrumental in helping determine the effects that specific materials are having on ocean habitats. … scientists and ocean advocates will be able to identify the best remedies and advocate for solutions that will lead to a healthier ocean.’

Top 10 items collected worldwide on ICC Day 2016.
(Source: Ocean Obsservancy's ICC 2017 Report)

According to Nicholas Mallos, conservation biologist and marine debris specialist of Ocean Conservancy: ‘The ability to pinpoint the types and amounts of material on beaches and in the ocean – not just the kinds of products – makes the data more informative when supporting marine debris policy.’





Friday, September 15, 2017

Was there a new boa discovered in the Philippines in the 1880s?

Is the “new species” of a boa serpent found in the Philippines and featured in the 22 February 1882 issue of the weekly paper La Ilustración española y americana of Madrid still existing?

Was it really a Philippine species?

Jose Domingo Seoane, a captain in the Spanish Navy, was said to have captured the ‘colossal ophidian’ much earlier (‘some time ago,’ probably in 1881) in ‘Mindanao, around Ilo-ilo,’ according to the short article.

The illustration of Piesigaster boettgeri from La Ilustracion.
(Source: Biblioteca National de Espana)

He probably gave a live specimen to his brother, Victor Lopez Seoane, a naturalist, who described it in his pamphlet Neue Boidengattung und Art, von den Philippinen (Frankfurt, 1881) as ‘somewhat compressed body, twice higher than wide; prehensile tail; bent teeth, and intermaxillary bone without teeth; between the scales; vertical pupil; fine general scales and lanceolate [tapered oval].’ He also measured the total length from the mouth to the anale simplex (more than a meter), the tail, the length and width of the tail. And the dominant body color, he wrote, was grayish-white, approaching yellow.

The boa, according to the story, ‘dwells in basements, in dark places, and rarely comes out of its burrows during the day, always waiting for the night to find food, which consists of small reptiles, birds, rats, and even larger animals, for the specimen which Seoane found had a chicken in its stomach.’ It presupposed that the serpent was already fully developed, thus, nothing longer than that could probably be found.

The reporter was ecstatic because the discovery was ‘an interesting event to the scientific academies of Berlin, London and Paris, all the more so since only snakes of the Pithonidae family of the two genera of Boides are known in the [Philippine] archipelago and in southern Asia.’

In his monograph on ‘The Snakes of the Philippine Islands (1922), Edward H. Taylor included Victor Lopez Zoane’s paper in the bibliography (p 30):  Neue Boidengattung und Art von den Philippinen. Abh. Senck. Nat. Ges. (1881) 12. … Describes a new genus Piesigaster with the species Piesigaster boettgeri from "der Provinz Iloilo und Pollock auf der Insel Mindanao," supposedly captured there by a brother of the author, a ship's captain of the Royal Spanish Marine. The specimen is Epicrates inornatus Reinhardt from the West Indies.’

However, Taylor included this specie as one of those erroneously attributed to the Philippine Islands: “Piesigaster boettgeri Seaone (= Epicrates inornatus Reinhardt). .
This species was originally described from Panay through a wrongly labeled specimen. It is confined to the West Indies.”

In the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the species with the taxon name Chilabothrus inornatus (Reinhardt, 1843) is synonymous with Boa inornata Reinhardt, 1843; Boella tenella Smith & Chiszar, 1992; Epicrates inornatus (Reinhardt, 1843); and Piesigaster boettgeri Seone, 1881.

Its common names are: Puerto Rican Boa and Yellow Tree Boa (English); Boa de Porto Rico and Boa sobre (French); and Boa de Puerto Rico (Spanish).

In 2009, it was assessed as ‘Least Concern due to its large distribution and ability to inhabit altered environments. Population numbers have declined in the past but this boa is still abundant in protected and inaccessible areas.’ This species is widely distributed in Puerto Rico, a native of that country.

Perhaps, the Spanish Navy captain picked up the boa in Puerto Rico, one of the Spanish colonies in the Americas, during one of his ship calls there, and gave the specimen to his brother, the naturalist.



References.:

Author Unknown. 1882, Feb 22. Historia Natural. La Ilustracion española y americana. 26:7(115, 125). Madrid. http://hemerotecadigital.bne.es/issue.vm?id=0001111476

Taylor, Edward H. 1922. The Snakes of the Philippine Islands. Manila: Bureau of Printing. Available from the Cornell University Library at https://archive.org/details/cu31924001803299.

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Chilabothrus inornatus – published in 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-4.RLTS.T7821A12853042.en