Thursday, June 30, 2011

Message to the Filipino People from Emilio Jacinto on the 365th Day of the Benigno Aquino III Government

Flag and doves detail. Bonifacio Memorial Shrine, Manila.

We thought that Epifanio de los Santos's translation of Ang Bayan at ang mga Gobiernong Pinuno and Ang Gumawa from Liwanag at Dilim of Emilio Jacinto would make good reading while we wait for His Excellency President Benigno Aquino III to deliver the State of the Nation Address on the 365th day of his governance.

"Emilio Jacinto gave his people the Cartilla," EDS (1918) wrote, "founded an organ for the defence of the interests of the Katipunan, and, finally, wrote Liwanag at Dilim, in which he embodied, in the form of axioms and sentences, the moral, social, and governing principles by which the Society was to be ruled. And in order that it might be self-supporting, he wrote the Estatutos ... along economical lines."  

Jacinto was, in today's parlance, the chief of staff of supremo Andres Bonifacio.  "They were like brothers," Gregoria de Jesus said of her husband and the younger man.  


"Now, when the aurora of liberty is beginning to appear and the path of true joy is the rule of the common effort until the desired goal is reached, the sons of the people must learn all those things which the subjection to Spain has prevented them from learning.

"It is important that they should know them, because they are like the flower that ripens into a fruit, and are what the wind is to the sail of the caravels that mark and point out the course of the peoples and the governments in order to make them true and permanent.

"When this is not the case, the right path is abandoned and the most beautiful project is but a histrionic exhibition and the most beautiful discourse traitorous suggestion.

"Oh, son of the people! remember the blood thou hast spilled and thy suffering and efforts in order that honor and right, which were downtrodden, might spring to new life. Consider them well, and thou wilt be sorry to have that right taken from thee again because of thy blindness and cowardice.

"Always bear in mind that with a new life come new customs.

"And, who can foretell? Perhaps ignorant and corrupt authorities may govern who will not desire thy welfare, but be lawless exploiters, who will dazzle thy eyes with the splendor of their power and with the attractive eloquence of their words. It is thy duty to be on guard, to sharpen thy intelligence, and to distinguish the good ruler from the bad, in order that thy efforts mav not miscarry.

"The people whom I address is not the local community, but that formed by the inhabitants of the whole earth.

"Nevertheless, in every community and society there is need of a head, of one who has power over the rest for direction and good example, and for the maintenance of unity among members and associates, and who will guide them to the desired goal, just as a vessel that is not guided by a skilful navigator runs the risk of losing its course and suffer dreadful shipwreck in mid-ocean, without hope of ever reaching the shores of the happy land of promise for which it was bound.

"This head is called the government, and he who is called upon to exercise its power, the governor.

"The object of all government is the people, and the security and welfare of the people must be the aim of all its laws and acts.

"For whatever may happen, the government is responsible. And its duties are to guide and lead the people to happiness. If it turns out badly and departs from the right path, it will be because it wanted to do so and because it was misled.

"And if one who sins against another is punished, what will be the punishment of him who sins against a whole people, an infinite multitude of his similars? And if the departure from the right path was due to ignorance on the part of the guide and ruler, why did he not allow, or make, another act as guide who knew the right path? Let us wipe out the habit of thinking that the ruler is the lord of the people and whatever he thinks and does is good. Let us accustom ourselves to thinking and saying that the happiness of all is the only duty of the ruler, in order that he may bear it in mind.

"I believe, and believe firmly, that the prosperity of a people lies with the people itself. A people that knows and esteems right and has as a rule of conduct kindness and dignity in all its acts, will not place itself at the mercy of any tyrant, nor submit to force and fraud, nor become the accomplice of the exalted and abominable prevaricator who rules on the heights of power.

"And as I believe in this, I call it to the attention of the sons of the people, because thus only will that custom be relegated to oblivion and no longer will we have said of us what Baltazar says in the following verses: 'While the perverse and traitors raise their arrogant heads, the good are ashamed and hang their heads.'

'Kaliluha't sama ang ulo'y nagtayo,
at ang kabaita'y kimi't nakayuko.'

"'We have already seen that we are all equal; that the power of the ruler was not given to him by nature, and that as a man he is on the same level as the rest. Hence all power, in order to be reasonable and genuine, must be exercised for the benefit of the people from which it emanated.

"Briefly, we must not recognize the superiority of the ruler as an attribute attached to him by nature. The obedience and respect due him are derived from the power conferred upon him by the people themselves, a power which is the integration of all the powers of the people.

"For this reason, he who obeys the power conferred by the people obeys the people and identifies himself with the will of all the citizens that compose the people, which identification or accord is necessary for the very life of the people.

"This alone will prevent abominable treason, now bankrupt, from again raising her head or posing as the hero or champion of the people and of liberty.

"Otherwise the people will not travel on the right path, and the people and its liberty will be overcome by lying invocations of these three magical names which are always pleasing to the ear.

"It is already an axiom that nobody can look out for a person as well as that person himself.

"And it is incumbent upon the people, if they wish to prevent their being held in contempt and enslaved, to be firm and to unmask and repel the disguised traitor.

"The tranquillity and prosperity of a community or society demand the existence of an intermediary high power, elected by the community, whose purpose It is to insure and insure unity among all the associates, which is the source of strength and vitality.

"From the highest official to the humblest citizen they must obey and comply with the laws that have emanated from this power created by the people and established by its representative, the Congress.

"But, alas! often the just and proper is relegated to the background and the excessive ambition for power, allied with the boundless ambition for gain, struggle to open the way for iniquity.

"The power of those who govern depends upon the love and esteem of the governed, and these are obtained only by a just and prudent conduct.

"Those make a great mistake who believe they can maintain their power by means of force and the gun: they are near-sighted and do not understand the lesson taught by terrible events recorded in History.

"Nobody is as good-hearted as he who is sincere and honest by disposition, yet at the same time nobody abominates like him abuses and violence and abject meekness.

"Those who govern constantly appeal to right and to the gratitude owing by the people. That is what they continually harp upon. But he on whose side is the right is the people, because he who governs owes duties to the people, namely, to work for its prosperity and execute its will. But, how many understand or wish to understand this truth?

"The welfare of the people, and nothing else, is the real reason and object, the alpha and omega, the beginning and the end, of all the duties of those who govern.

"But this same welfare often disappear and suffers when heartless petulance rises to power; when protection and right surrender to bribery and to servility towards the mighty.

"It is then that criminals reap their harvests and that presumptuous stupidity rises like the foam.

"The time is come for the wicked to change their ways and spontaneously to make reparation for their great errors. They resemble the chameleon that takes the color of the tree to which it clings.

"The most efficient lever against these evils is the education of the people and a change in their customs.

"The laws must therefore be obeyed and respected, as the expression of the popular will, and not the will of those who govern, as they are merely charged with carrying out those same laws.

"The ancient custom of considering the judge as above the law has serious consequences, because law and right are both undermined by it.

"This custom must, therefore, be abandoned and it must be proclaimed that the laws are above all human consideration, because they are the expression of the will of the people, and that if the judges desire to retain their positions, they must necessarily comply with the dictates of justice; otherwise they must be removed.

"The welfare of the people is the sole purpose of all the governments on earth. The people is all: blood and life, wealth and strength, all is of the people. The army raised for the defence of the lives of all is formed by the sons of the people; the wealth of the government comes from the sons of the people; the greatness and strength of the government are due to the loyalty and obedience of the sons of the people, and all that is useful to life, is the product of the industry of the sons of the people who till the fields, breed and keep the cattle, and make the things and utensils necessary for life.

"We have seen that the people, in order to exist and progress, need a head or government whom it is the duty of the people to grant, for its maintenance, subsidies or taxes which must be imposed and invested only with the manifest consent of the taxpayers.


"Work is a gift to humanity, because it awakens and gives vigor to intellectual power, will, and body, which are indispensable for progress in life. The sacred writings from which the Christian religion originated, narrate that work is a punishment imposed by God upon Adam, the father of the human race, for having tasted of the forbidden fruit, and this punishment has been inherited by us, his sons. But this legend is erroneous and contrary to the will of God, and from it springs the human error that work, being a punishment, is a corporal affliction looked upon like an unavoidable ailment.

"For this reason many are ashamed to work, principally the wealthy, the powerful, and the learned who make a vain show of that which they style the comforts of life or corporal well-being.

"And they finish in the mire, leading a miserable and abject life that tends to bring about the destruction of the human race.

"Whatever is useful, whatever tends to make life easier, that let us support because it is a result well worthy of our efforts.

"He who toils keeps away from a life of disorderly and bad habits and boredom, finds diversion in labor, and becomes strong, prosperous, and cheerful.

"Contemplating the so-called rich, great, and alleged wise men, we can see through their outward prosperity, social splendor, and happiness, and perceive wearisomeness, weakness, haughtiness, coupled with vicious habits, which are the source of the countless ailments that little by little destroy them.

"How much truth is there in what our Baltazar has sung in his verses 'Those who grow up 'midst the revelries of wealth, are devoid of judgment and kindness and lacking in counsel.'

'Ang laki sa layaw karaniwa'y hubad
sa bait at muni't sa hatol ay salat.'

"God wants us to work, because if we see ourselves surrounded with all we need and swim in abundance, it is the result of our efforts, hence, without doubt, work is neither punishment nor a penalty, but a reward and blessing bestowed by God upon man through the grace of his great love." 



Santos Cristobal, Epifanio de los. (1918, June). Emilio Jacinto. The Philippine review (Revista Filipina). 3(6)412-429.  Manila, P.I.  Retrieved at

Jesus, Gregoria de. (1930, June).  Autobiography of Gregoria de Jesus.  Leandro H. Fernandez, Tr.  Philippine Magazine.  27(1):16-18,65-68.  Retrieved from

Saturday, June 25, 2011

While looking for JP Rizal, we stumbled upon Emilio Jacinto

Frontispiece of Buhay at mga Sinulat ni Emilio Jacinto by Jose P. Santos (1935). This portrait of Emilio Jacinto was done by Guillermo Tolentino for the Philippine Free Press of 20 July, 1929.  The artist returned to the country in 1924 after his studies in Italy.

We were looking for Jose Rizal in the digital library collection of the University of Michigan (The United States and Its Territories, 1870-1925: The Age of Imperialism), and our digital angel led us through a maze of 1,443 matches in 417 records .

We were surprised that the angel led us to ‘Pagsusulatan nang dalauang binibini na si Urbana at ni Feliza: na nagtuturo ng mabuting kaugalian’ (Castro, 19na).  Left clicks showed Jose Rizal in three stanzas of Tagalog poems, but they're not from pen-pal conversations between the two ladies.  They were part of poetic tributes to Emilio Jacinto in Buhay at mga Sinulat ni Emilio Jacinto [Life and Writings of Emilio Jacinto] by Jose P. Santos (1935), son of Don Panyong or Epifanio de los Santos, and two of those stanzas describe an encounter between him and the national hero.

Here Jacinto was portrayed as a poor Chinese impostor in the attempt to reach Jose Rizal --
  • Nagdamit-intsik kang/ pagkahiraphirap upang ibalita/ kay Gat Jose Rizal/ ang dakilang mithi nitong iyong Lupa,/ na kung mangyayari’y minsanang lumaya/ sa kamay ng Haring nagpapakasiba./ Dakilang Bayani;/ sa katutuhanan, ako’y naniniwala/ na napakatangi/ ang pag-iisip mo, diwa’t munakala,/ sa kapwa ko tao’y talagang bihira/ ang sa ginawa mo’y hindi pa hahanga. (from “Emilio Jacinto” by Julian Cruz Balmaseda) 
  • Humuwad sa isang intsik na mahirap/ upang sa lihiman ay maipahayag/ kay Gat Jose Rizal ang guhit ng palad/ nitong baying ibig kumita ng lunas,/ na kung mangyayari’y sadyang mailadlad. (from “Pingkian” by Romualdo G Ramos)

Epifanio de los Santos (1918) described this episode as taking place in July 1896 when, "disguised as a Chinese cargador, he secretly introduced himself into Dr. Rizal's cabin in order to convince him that he ought to make common cause with the sons of the people."

Jose Santos mentioned two missions from Andres Bonifacio to rescue Rizal.  One was successful, where he and fellow katipunero Guillermo Masangkay pretended to be boat stewards on swab duties --
  • Emilio Jacinto upang makausap lamang si Dr. Rizal na nooo'y nasa look ng Maynila, lulan ng isang lantsa, ay nang walang anu-ano'y salalapit sa tabi ni Dr. Rizal na noo'y nakikipaglaro ng ahedres sa tenyente ng mga beteranang tanod niya, ang dalawang taong may hawak na panglampaso at makailang sumagid sa tabi ni Dr. Rizal. Nahulaan naman agad ni Dr. Rizal na may mahalagang sadya sa kaniya ang mga taong ito kaya sandaling nagpaalam sa kaniyang kalaro at, nagtung o sa kaniyang silid. Nilapitan siya ng isa sa mga naglalampaso at ipinatalastas na kaya sila nagtungo roon ay sa utos ng Supremo Bonifacio at ang ibig ay agawin si Dr. Rizal sa kamay ng mga tanod na kastila, mangyari na ang mangyayari. Sinasabi ng ibang nagalit si Dr. Rizal nang marinig ang gayong pasabi sa kaniya, nguni't ang totoo raw, ayon naman sa patunay ni G. Lope K. Santos, ay walang isinagot si Dr. Rizal kundi ang huwag silang gumawa ng gayon at siya ang bahala sa kaniyang katawan. ...Ang patrono ng lantsa na nagaapelyidong Reyes ay kapatid sa katipunan, kaya nangyaring nakapasok doon si Emilio Jaeinto at ang isa pa niyang kasamang si Guillermo Masangkay (Santos). 
and an unsuccesful one where he disguised as a laundryman from Kawit  --
  • Nang si Rizal ay isakay sa munting bapor "Otalora" upang ilipat sa  malaking "Castilla" (Isla de Panay," ayon sa namatay na mananalaysay na si G. Manuel Artigas at Cuerva) ay muling humabol si Emilio Jacinto at upang maisagawa ito ay nagdamit labanderong taga-Kawit, nguni't ni hindi man lamang niya nakuhang makalapit kay Dr. Rizal dahil sa ito'y natatalibaan nang mabuti (Santos)
Cruz (1922) had another version of the first rescue operation. This one had a date, August 5, 1896, and the cast is still the same, Jacinto and Masangkay as sailors (not laundrymen nor in disguise as Chinese) on board the launch "Caridad" that will bring Rizal to the boat "Espana."
  • Datapwa, ang nais ni Bonifacio, bagaman si Rizal ay di nila kaayon, ay siya'y gawing pangulong pangdangal at siya'y magawang sanggunian, bagay itong di nangyari. Nang si Rizal ay dumating sa Maynila noong ika 5 ng Agosto ng 1896 na galing sa Dapitan na pinagtapunan sa kanya, ay tinangka nina Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto at ibang kasamahan na siya'y itanan. Si Emilio Jacinto ay nagsuot marinero. at nagsadya sa lancha "Caridad" na kinalululanan ni Rizal sa paglunsad sa bapor "Espana."Kunwa'y nagliinis, at sa isang pagkakataon ay ibinulong sa ating bayani: "Kung kayo po'y ibibilanggo, ay ililigtas namin kayo. Kami'y nahahanda." Palibhasa'y umaasa si Rizal sa kalinisan ng kanyang budhi sa matapat na pakikisama niya sa pamahalaan noon, sumagot ng gayari: "Salamat. Huwag ninyong gawin iya sa akin. Bayaan ninyo't nalalaman ko ang aking gagawin." Dahil dito, ang nais na yaon nina Bonifacio ay di nga nangyari at sa gayo'y napilitang magkasya na sa sarisarili nilang pamamatnugot ng "Katipunan." 

It doesn't really matter now how many or which of the cited rescue missions took place. But definitely, Jacinto was able to talk to his idol Jose Rizal, ang kanyang uliran sa kabutihang asal at sa panunulat (Santos).

Jacinto wrote both in Tagalog and Spanish.  Because they spoke kastilang tindahan or lenguaje de tienda at home as most of Manila people of that time did, he was not fluent in Tagalog.  It was something learned fast under the tutelage primarily of Andres Bonifacio, and pretty soon he was at the helm of the Katipunan propaganda machine.

Critics praised his Tagalog prose. Bonifacio even deferred to Jacinto's version of the Kartilya and had it officially adopted by the Katipunan.  His Liwanag at Dilim, which embodied his personal political beliefs, had been deemed as the Katipunan political ideology as well.  It may be worth to check if the ideals defined under these section headings--Ang Ningning at Ang Liwanag (Light and Glitter), Kalayaan (Liberty), At Tayo'y Magkakapantay (All Men are Equal), Ang Pagibig (Love), Ang Bayan at ang mga (Gobierno) Pinuno (People and Government), Ang Maling Pagsampalataya (False Belief) and Ang Gumawa (Work)--especially People and Government, still apply to the crusade for Ang Daang Matuwid (The Straight Path) of our government today.

He wrote a few poems in Spanish, but only his A La Patria, which he signed as Dimas-Ilaw, saw print. De los Santos regarded this work "visibly an imitation of the Ultimo Adios and even of the pseudonym of the Great Filipino ... inferior to its model in literary respects but comes up to it in sincerity ..."

Jacinto wrote statutes that provided for some kind "of agricultural, industrial and commercial trust for the rebellious provinces ... [that] would sustain the revolution," which was reflective of Rizal's Liga Filipina (De los Santos).
  • Nang kasalukuyang nag-aapoy ang himagsikan ay binalak ni Emilio Jacinto na magtatag ng isang samahan ng mga magkakababayan ukol sa pagsasaka, pagpapagawa at pangangalakal at ito 'y maglalayon ng pagpapayaman sa bayan upang may mapagkunan ng puhunan at lakas sa pakikibaka. Nahahawig ang samahang yaon sa Liga Filipina ni Rizal (Santos).
Idol! That was Rizal to Emilio Jacinto. 

And Bonifacio?  In today's parlance, they were BFFs! More of this in the next blog. 

  • Cruz, Hermenegildo.(1922). Kartilyang makabayan: ma tanóng at sagot ukol kay Andres Bonifacio at sa Kataastaasan, Kagalanggalang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan.  Manila: S.P.  Retrieved from
  •  Santos, Epifanio de los. (1918, June). Emilio Jacinto. The Philippine Review. 3(6):412-430. Retrieved from 
  • Santos, Jose P. (1935). Buhay at mga sinulat ni Emilio Jacinto. Paunang salita ng Kgg. Rafael Palma.  Published by Dr Jose Bantug, place of publication not indicated. 
    Note:  Santos's Buhay is accessed as Pag susulatan nang dalauang binibini na si Urbana at ni Feliza: na nagtuturo ng̃ mabuting kaugalian / kinatha nang Modesto de Castro, obviously a catalog error, through

    Tuesday, June 21, 2011

    Visiting an 85-year old Philippine relic in Warsaw, Virginia

    Eighty five years ago on 20 June 1926, the Filipino people dedicated a memorial to Honorable William Atkinson Jones, representative of the First District of Virginia to the US Congress in 1890-1918, in Warsaw, Virginia.  He was the author of the Jones Law a.k.a. the Philippine Autonomy Act of 1916.

    In our blog in January last year, we wondered if anyone has ever seen this Philippine memorial, officially called William Atkinson Jones Mausoleum, which was erected as "a tribute of undying gratitude of the Filipino people."

    It took us some time to locate this mausoleum in Warsaw despite the GPS that guided our trip all the way from Old Town in Alexandria on 12 June.  The fact that it was Philippine independence day didn't have anything to do with our search.  The proclamation of independence in Kawit, Cavite certainly has more meaning to us all today than the promise in the Jones Law of our independence "as soon as a stable government can be established"

    There is supposed to be the Jones mansion nearby where the gifts of gold tablet worth $10,000 with a touching inscription from the Philippine Chamber of Commerce and a cup that became famous from Manuel L Quezon, among others, were displayed in 1926.  

    The mausoleum stands out in the cemetery yard of the St. John's Episcopal Church.  Beside the church is another structure, however, this doesn't look like a mansion.

    The memorial is very well-kept even if it is not in the tourism maps of Virginia.  

    We'd like to look at it now as a memorial to the school children who contributed their precious centavos to help the Philippine government put up $35,000 for its construction with the hope that they will see the grant of independence during their lifetime.

    Postscript.  Our thanks to Art & Pia of Alexandria, VA for taking us to historical places in Virginia and Washington DC.

    Sunday, June 19, 2011

    Rizal@150. Walking with JPR in New York of 1888.

    We came to know of a Rizal marker in New York City over a late breakfast of salmon sandwiches and hot coffee in a Queens deli from Rey Lauron, ex-Madz, ex-UP carilloner, Pinoy music man in Paris for almost three decades and New York since the 1990s.  

    This Knight of Rizal recalled being around when the marker was installed sometime in May 1995 in a building at the corner of 23rd St and Fifth Avenue occupied at that time by the International Toy Company.  

    "They'll let you take pictures," he assured, "just ask permission."  Obviously, Lauron has not visited the place since then.  We found the building alright, but the toy company is gone and the marker nowhere in sight.  The present occupants say they haven't seen it at all.

    This is the Fifth Avenue Building facing the Madison Square Park where the Filipinos and friends assemble annually for the Philippine Independence Day celebrations, and neighbor to the iconic Flatiron Building nearby.

    When JPR was in New York, Brooklyn was not yet part of the city. The hub of social, political and entertainment activities was in downtown Manhattan, the areas surrounding Union Square on 14th St and Madison Square Park on 23rd St. 

    The Madison Square Park was/is right across the hotel where JPR checked in around noontime on 13 May 1888 after his cross-country train ride that started from Oakland, California seven days earlier.       

    "A heritage of New York," the marker says of the  building that started as a farmhouse in 1839, then a tavern until 1852 when it was rebuilt as a hippodrome.  In 1859, that was replaced by "the six-storied, white marble Fifth Avenue Hotel, with the first hotel passenger elevator in New York ... and became a center of the city's social and political life."  What we see now is the structure erected in 1909, designed by Maynicke and Franke in Italian renaissance eclectic style, but it is no longer a hotel.

    JPR had only one entry in his travel diary describing his impressions from his train window as they rode into New York, New York -- 

    "Sunday 13 May –

    "We awoke near Albany.  It is a large city.  There are various vessels in the Hudson River, which runs along its side.  We cross it on a bridge.  The landscape is beautiful and it has not much to envy in the best in Europe.  We travel along the banks of the Hudson.  The banks of the Hudson are very beautiful although a little lonely in comparison with the Pasig.  There are steamers and boats, trees, and hills, mostly cultivated.  The Hudson is wide.  There are beautiful boats.  The masses of granite had been cut to give way to the railroad.  In some parts, it is very long.  There are beautiful houses amidst trees.  The day is mild.  Our grand transcontinental travel ended on Sunday, 13 May, at 11:10 o’clock in the morning.  We passed through various tunnels.  The Art Age, 75 W. 23rd Street. 

    -- and as they sailed away for London -- 

    "We left New York on 16 May 1888.  There was a crowd at the dock: Those of the 1st class are separate from those of the 2nd class at the entrance.  At 9:00 a beautiful spectacle at the jetty!  White handkerchiefs waving among hat bands, red flowers and other colors. . . . ."   

    We have no idea what he did during his brief stay in New York.

    The entry "The Art Age, 75 W. 23rd Street" clues us on what he possibly first did in the city.  He walked to this place, which was/is just at the west end of the block bound by 23rd St, Fifth and Sixth Avenues.  The artist in him could have sniffed correctly that this company dealt with the art business.  It was a printing company that put out the monthly journal of the same name. 

    JPR could have leafed through the April issue of The Art Age, and liked the articles written with accompanying illustrations, critiques of art works, and reproductions of paintings there.  Here's one feature in that issue as described by The Critic --

    He knew the English language, which he had been studying since 1884, and with which he used to learn Japanese from O Sei San during his stay in her country before he left her for the United States.  JPR could have also read the weeklies The Critic and The Nation, and the daily The New York Times, among others, and who knows if he could have brought one of these to read on his way to England, and hone his English?

    He could have brought a paper with him to read after a walk to Union Square or right across at Madison Square Park.  If he bought the The Nation (issue number 1193, 10 May 1888), he could have read about the civil service in Philadelphia and the Rumanian peasant revolt, among others, as shown by its table of contents below --

    Being a botanist, he could have enjoyed strolling to the parks and reading there surrounded by green trees and flowers of various colors in profusion all around him.  He could have rode to Central Park, which in the first decade after its construction in 1863 was not very accessible to the working class residing in lower Manhattan.  

    From his readings, he could have learned about city politics and the Tammany politicians of the day, and could have gone to take a look at Tammany Hall.

    Austin Craig (1914) wrote that JPR, during his first life in Europe, "frequently attended the theater, choosing specially the higher class dramas ... and for the rest devoted most of his money to the purchase of books."  The New York papers carried advertisements of book shops and books on sale, and JPR could have scanned something interesting that he could afford to buy.

    JPR could have been as eager as most of first-time visitors in New York today to see a play or a musical. In the 1870s, the Union Square area near Broadway at 14th Street was the city's main theater district, and by the 1880s as the city grew northward, new theaters were built near Madison Square, the area surrounding the junction of Broadway and 23rd Street.  The Lyceum on Fourth Avenue and 24th St was the first electricity-lit theater with Thomas Alva Edison himself supervising the power installation in 1885.

    A brief diversion ... JPR missed an event that could have merited an entry in his travel notes if he got to New York at least a day earlier.  On 12 May 1888, Thomas Alva Edison exhibited his improved phonograph at the Electrical Club in New York. 

    Thus, the theaters were in JPR's walking distance.  We may assume that he did not get to see a play but he could have noted the posters displayed at the lobbies of the theaters.  As gleaned from the the review of the New York Times of 20 May 1888, these were  on stage at that time --

    The Still Alarm” was continuing at the Fourteenth-Street Theatre, “Natural Gas” play that was “likely to run well into the summer” at the Fifth-Avenue Theatre, “The Queen’s Mate”, with “magnificent costumes and handsome scenery, had been playing at the Broadway Theatre to large houses, and “likely to run most of the summer”, “The Wife” at the Lyceum was expected to reach its two hundred and fiftieth night by its last performance in June, “The Lady or the Tiger”, an operetta likely on the boards for many weeks being  a “great financial success at Wallack’s Theatre, the comic opera “Nadjy” at the Casino, which has been filled to capacity despite severe criticism, and “Herr Brockmann’s monkeys, dogs, and ponies ... at the Star ... central point of attraction for children of ripe and tender years.”

    As a sportsman, JPR could not have ignored the first Madison Square Garden (the present one at the Pennsylvania Station is the fifth) that opened in 1879, which was basically a sports arena.  We do not know what event was being held during JPR's visit, but the usual fare before it closed in 1890 were the PT Barnum circus, boxing exhibitions (boxing perse was illegal), flower and horse shows, conventions, indoor track and field events (first held in 1888).    

    It baffles that JPR did not write anything about his stay in New York.  But in his diary concerning an arrogant American in a train ride from Paris to Dieppe in 1889, he wrote that "beginning to be annoyed by the fury of the traveler and I was going to join the conversation to tell him what I have seen and endured in America, in New York itself, how many troubles and what torture the customs in the United States made us suffer, the demands of drivers, barbers, etc., people who, as in many other places, live on travelers…."
    What did he suffer in New York?  Did he shut himself away from the New York crowd, the sights and sounds that's why he did not add more to the view he saw from the train and from the ship when he came and left? 

    • Craig, Austin. (1914). Lineage, life and labors of Jose Rizal, Philippine patriot. A Study of the Growth of Free Ideas in the Trans-Pacific American Territory. Yonkers-on-Hudson: World Book Company.
    • "The Life and Writings of Dr Jose Rizal/Diaries of Rizal" (Dr Robert L Yoder, Webmaster). Retrieved from
    • Critic, The. (July-December 1888, Volume 10).  Google Books.
    • Nation, The. (January-June 1888. Volume 46). Google Books.
    • New York Times, The.  (20 May 1888).
    • Madison Square Garden I.  Retrieved from

    Tuesday, June 7, 2011

    Rizal@150. Digging up some treasures from Charles Edward Russell's "Hero of the Filipinos"

    Kaleidoscope immediately comes to our mind when we start talking about Rizal.  That's because our university professor cut short a giggly banter with a seatmate at the back row of our PI 100 class with "what's a kaleidoscope, Mr Ramos?".  The professor was starting the discussion on the dinner at the house of Capitan Tiago in the Noli.
    That was before the First Quarter Storm.  Since then, we've had indeed a kaleidoscopic view of the hero's life and works from a more serious appreciation of Rizalian literature like the biographies by Austin Coates (Rizal  Filipino Nationalist and Patriot) and Leon Ma. Guerrero (The First Filipino) and the column articles of Ambeth Ocampo, among others. 

    The latest find for our reading list is the biography "The Hero of the Filipinos. The Story of Jose Rizal, Poet, Patriot and Martyr" by Charles Edward Russell and E.B. Rodriguez published in New York in 1923 at $3 per copy then.  This book was dedicated "to the memory of Apolinario Mabini, philosophical democrat, gallant soldier of the common good.”

    Russell (1860-1941) was a few months younger than JP Rizal.  He was a prominent writer, the author of 27 books. He was the top editor of two newspapers under Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst in the 1890s, and was cited as one of the 10 best reporters when he wrote for the New York HeraldMost of his books including "The Hero ..." and "The Outlook for the Philippines" are available online from University of Pennsylvania library.  His biography "The American Orchestra and Theodore Thomas" won the Pulitzer Prize in 1927.

    Filipino EB Rodriguez served as director of Philippine Press Bureau in Washington before he collaborated with Russell on the book.

    The fact that Russell was a co-founder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909, a Socialist Party leader, and that he was dubbed "the chief of muckrakers" for his exposes during his lifetime pursuit of social justice, explain where he was coming from when he wrote about JP Rizal and supported the Philippine independence campaign. 

    The prefatory note explains how materials, primarily from the works of the hero including the Noli and Fili, shaped this biography intended for American readers who were ignorant of this Malay (that's Russell's term) and largely influenced by prevailing racial and cultural prejudices of the time.

    We found interesting gems in this book.  One set comprises the illustrations and photographs, and the other is the annotated bibliography.

    Here are some of the illustrations and photographs with their original captions. 

    We know that the Rizal house was not restored until 1950 during the time of President Elpidio Quirino.  This sketch tells us how it looked prior to its restoration.
    This is the first time we saw this outline of the constitution of the La Liga.  It's not in the Rizal exhibits in Fort Santiago.
    Was this picture taken at the house in Calamba?  Where are these remnants of the hero's library now?
    Now we know how the Ateneo looked before the bombs of the US liberation forces reduced it to a pile of broken concrete in its site in Intramuros.
    The Philippines was still looking for events to commemorate.  By law, Rizal Day was it at the time. The independence day celebration was yet a collective dream (04 July parades came after the Pacific war until the date was corrected to 12 June). 
    A Rizal day gathering around the Rizal monument.  Today, we can't get near and touch the monument.  This photograph is also in Ambeth Ocampo's Heroes collection.
    When we go to Fort Santiago, we should bring this photograph of his cell for comparison.

    Students would find the long list of sources with notations in the bibliography very valuable for their research project.  Here a few interesting items (we retained the list number, and grouped them by subject):

    His poetry --

    1.   "El Embarque: Himno A la Flota de Magellanes." (The Departure: Hymn to Magellan's Fleet.) This poem seems to have been dated December 5, 1875, but according to Rizal's friends, Vicente Elio and Mariano Ponce, it was written in 1874. It was first published in "La Patria," Manila, December 30, 1899.
     4.   "Un Dialogo Alusivo A la Despedida de los Colegiales." (A Dialogue Embodying His Farewell to the Collegians.) Rizal mentions this poem as having been delivered toward the end of his course at the Ateneo, which would mean March, 1876.
     6.   "Un Recuerdo A Mi Pueblo." (A Remembrance to My Town.) Poem offered by the author at one of the sessions of the Academy of Literature of the Ateneo. First published in "La Patria," December 30, 1899. Written about 1876.
     20. "Junto al Pasig." Part of the first scene of the foregoing as sung by students in a religious procession, November 27, 1904. The music was composed by Blas de Echegoyen. "Sa Virgen ng Antipolo." Translation into Tagalog verse of the children's chorus in “Junta al Pasig," by Honorio Lopez.
     133. "Mi Retiro: A Mi Madre." My Retirement: To My Mother.) Poem written in Dapitan, 1895. First published in "Republica Filipina" in 1898. "Ang Ligpit Kong Pamumuhay: Sa Aking Ina." Tagalog translation of the above by Honorio Lopez. 

    His fiction (finished/unfinished, published/unpublished) --

    17. "Abd-el-Azis y Mahoma." (Abd-el-Azis and Mohammed.) Historical romance, read at the Ateneo by Manuel Fernandez y Maniung, December 8, 1879, at the meeting in honor of the Ateneo's patron saint.
     36. A historical novel, unfinished. Five chapters. He began to write it in Madrid while a student there. It has no title.
     50. "Los Animales de Juan." (John's Animals.) An unpublished story.
     61. "Noli Me Tangere." Berlin, March, 1887. His first complete novel. "Noli Me Tangere." Second edition, Manila, Chofre & Co., 1899. "Noli Me Tangere." Third edition, Valencia, Sempere, 1902. Somewhat shortened and  with mutilations. "Noli Me Tangere." Fourth edition, Barcelona, Maucci, 1903. With a short prologue by Ramon Sempau. "Au Pays des Moines." French translation of 61 by Henri Lucas and Ramon Sempau. Paris, 1899. With a few notes. "An Eagle's Flight." Abbreviated English translation. New York: McClure, Phillips & Co., 1900. "Friars and Filipinos." Another English translation, somewhat fuller than 61 f, by F. E. Gannet. New York, 1907. German translation of "Noli Me Tangere." Never finished, by Dr. Blumentritt. "Noli Me Tangere." Tagalog translation by Paciano Rizal, brother of the author. Rizal himself revised and corrected the sheets. "Noli Me Tangere." Tagalog translation by P. H. Poblete. "Noli Me Tangere." Cebuana translation by Vicente Sotto."Tulang na sa 'Noli.'"' The song from Chap. XXIII translated into Tagalog by M. H. del Pilar. 1888. "Noli Me Tangere" (Extracts). Translations of chapters, paragraphs, and sentences into many dialects in broadside form for general distribution in the islands."Ang 'Noli Me Tangere.' " Playlet performed on Rizal's birthday. Mentioned in "El Renacimiento," Manila, 1905. "The Social Cancer." A complete English Version of "Noli Me Tangere," from the Spanish of Jose Rizal by Charles Derbyshire (with a life of Rizal), Manila, Philippine Education Company, 1912.
    82. A novel in Spanish. No title. Rizal began it in 1889, left unfinished.
    109. "Mariang Makiling." Legend. Under the pseudonym "Laong Laan," published in "La Solidaridad," December 31, 1890. "Mariang Makiling." Tagalog translation of the foregoing. This was the last work that Rizal did for "La Solidaridad."
     111. "El Filibusterismo: Novela Filipina." (Filibusterism.) Ghent, 1891. First edition, rare. Fragments were published by papers in Spain in 1891. "El Filibusterismo." Second edition. Manila, Chofre & Co., 1900. "El Filibusterismo."' Tagalog translation by P. H. Poblete, 1904. "El Filibusterismo: Novela Filipina." Third edition. Prologada y anotada por W. E. Retana. Barcelona, de Henrich and Company. 1908. "The Reign of Greed." A complete English version of "El Filibusterismo," from the Spanish of Jose Rizal by Charles Derbyshire. Manila, Philippine Education Company, 1912.
     130. "Fragmentos de una Novela Inedita y sin Concluir." (Fragments of an Incomplete and Unpublished Novel.) Written in Dapitan. Fragments of a novel.
     131. "Makamisa.” Verses beginning a novel in Tagalog. Never completed.

    His articles/essays --

    40. "Costumbres Filipinas: un Recuerdo." (Philippine Customs: a Memory.) An incomplete article, written in Madrid, 1884 or 1885.
     43. "Llanto y Risas." An uncompleted article, written in Madrid between 1884 and 1886.
     44. Memorias de un Gallo. (Memories of a cock.) Incomplete. Mutilated.
     45. "Apuntes de Literatura Española, de Hebreo, y de Arabe." (Notes on Spanish, Hebrew, and Arabian Literature.) Not dated. Notes in a copy-book.
     46. "Semblanzas de Algunos Filipinos Companeros en Europa." Closely Noted Observations on Certain Filipinos Then Residing in Europe.
     47. "Estado de Religiosidad de los Pueblos en Filipinas." (Religious State of the Towns in the Philippines.) Unpublished.
     48. "Pensamiento de un Filipino." (Thoughts of a Filipino.) An unpublished article, date unknown.
     49. "Un Librepensador." (A Free-Thinker.) An unpublished article. Probably written in Madrid.
     53. "Mi Primer Recuerdo: Fragmento de Mis Memorias." (My First Recollection: Fragments of My Memories.) All these last few works seem to have been written while Rizal was a student in Madrid.
     74. "Informe al Administrador de Hacienda puiblica de la Laguna acerca de la Hacienda de los PP. Dominicos en Calamba." (Report to the Administrator of Public Finance of La Laguna about the Estate of the Dominican Friars in Calamba.) Rizal's report in the tax fight. It was signed by the justice of the peace, the board of officers, and seventy leading men of the Calamba district. Mr. Ponce describes it as the first stone thrown in the bitter contest that ensued between the village and the powerful religious corporation. It was published as an appendix to "La Soberania Monacal," by M. H. del Pilar. The date was early in 1888.
     76. "Notas, en Colaboracion con el Dr. A. B. Meyer y el Dr. F. Blumentritt, a un Codice Chino de la Edad Media, Traducido al Aleman por el Dr. Hirth." (Notes, Collaborated with Dr. A. B. Meyer and Dr. F. Blumentritt, on an old Chinese Manuscript of the Middle Ages, Translated into German by Dr. Hirth.) Published in "La Solidaridad," April 30, 1889.
     120. "La Mano Roja." (The Red Hand.) Sheet printed in Hong-Kong, June, 1892, calling attention to the number of fires started intentionally in Manila. "Ang Mapulang Kamay." Translation of above, published in 1894.
     121. "A los Filipinos! (Testamento publico.)" (To the Filipinos.) Dated at Hong-Kong, June 20, 1892. Published in various newspapers of the country. The address to his countrymen to be made public in case of his death.
     122. "Notas de Sucesos desde su Desembarco en Manila, Procedente de Hong-Kong, hasta su Deportaci6n y Llegada a Dapitan. 1892." (Notes of Events from his Landing in Manila Arriving from HongKong up to his Deportation and Arrival at Dapitan, 1892.)
     128. "Dapitan." Introduction to a work which was never followed up.
     135. "La Curacion de los Hechizados." (The Cure for the Bewitched.) An article believed to be unpublished.
     138. "Manifiesto--a Algunos Filipinos." (Manifesto-To Certain Filipinos.) Manila, Santiago Prison, December 15, 1896. This was published by many newspapers in the country.
     144. "Manila en 1872." An article by Rizal discovered after his death and published in the Manila "Citizen," January 9, 1919.
     145. "Cartas, un Jesuita." Another posthumous article, published in the Manila "Citizen," February 7, 1919.

    His Speeches --

    63. "Tagalische Verskunst.” Work read before the Ethnographical Society of Berlin, April, 1887, and published the same year, by that society. "Arte Metrica del Tagalog." (Metrical Art of the Tagalogs.) Spanish translation, made by Rizal, of the foregoing work. Amplified.
    110. "Discurso en el Banquete de la Colonia Filipina de Madrid en la Noche del 31 de Diciembre de 1890." (Speech at the Banquet of the Philippine Colony of Madrid, held in that city on the evening of December 31, 1890.)
     Works in a Foreign Language.

     41. "La Fete de Saint Isidro." Not dated. Written in French.
     56. "Madrid." An epistolary chronicle, written in French from Germany in 1886. First published in "Nuestro Tiempo" in February, 1905.
     57. ''Critica Literaria." Not dated. Criticisms in French on "Tartarin sur les Alpes" and "Le Pistolet de la Petit Baronne." Germany, 1886.
     58. "Essai sur Pierre Corneille." In French. Germany, 1886.
     60. "Une Soiree chez M. B...." Written in Berlin, in French. Unpublished sketch. No date.
     62. "Histoire d' une Mere." A Tale of Andersen's. Translation from German to French. Berlin, March 5, 1887.
     68. "En las Montañas." (In the Mountains.) Poem written in Germany in 1887.
     80.  "Two Eastern Fables." In "Trubner's Record," London, June, 1889. English.
     136. "Comparative Tagalog Grammar." Written in English. Incomplete.
     141. "French Composition Exercises," by Jose Rizal, B. A., Ph. M., L. C. M. (Madrid), Postgraduate student in Paris, Leipzig, Heidelberg, Berlin and London. Manila, 1912. Philippine Education Company.

     Works in Tagalog.

    59. "Tinipong Karunungan ng Kaibigan Ng mga Taga Rhin." Beginning of a translation of a book by Hebel into Tagalog.
     72. "Traducci6n de Poesias Alemanes al Tagalo." (Translation of German Poems into Tagalog.) Done in Calamba about 1887 or 1888. Unpublished.
     73. "Guillermo Tell: Trahediang Tinula ni Schiller sa Wikang Aleman." (William Tell.) Tagalog translation in which he used the new method of spelling.
     92. "Sa Mga Kababay-ang Dalaga sa Malolos." A letter headed "Europe, 1889."
     113. "Ang Mga Karapatan Nang Tao." Tagalog translation of the Rights of Man proclaimed by the French revolutionists of 1789. This was probably done during his stay in Hong-Kong and is what the Filipinos call a "proclamation."
     115. "Sa Mga Kababayan." Sheet printed in Hong-Kong in December, 1891. It deals with the land question of Calamba.

    Works in Prison before execution.

    137. "Datos para Mi Defensa." (Points for My Defense.) Written in Santiago Prison, December 12, 1896.
     139. "Adiciones a Mi Defensa." (Additions to My Defense.) Manila, December 26, 1896.
     140. "Ultimo pensamiento." (Last Thoughts.) The poem written in the chapel, a few nights before his death. The original manuscript was unsigned and written on ordinary ruled paper. Alcohol stains (from the lamp) can still be seen on the original where it blurred the ink. The above title was given to the poem by Mr. Ponce. Under the title "Ultimo Adios" (My Last Farewell) it was published in "La Independencia," September 25, 1898. It has been translated into many languages, including the island dialects, French, English, German, Chinese, and Japanese.

    • Russell, Charles Edward and Rodriguez, Eulogio Balan, (1923). The hero of the Filipinos; the story of José Rizal, poet, patriot and martyr. New York: Century, 1923. Retrieved from 

    Friday, June 3, 2011

    Rizal@150. Survey of the Rizal Day issues of The Philippine Republic, 1923-27

    The Philippine Republic was a monthly magazine that Clyde H. Tavenner edited and published in Washington DC in the 1920s "to tell the American people facts about Filipinos and Philippine independence that they ought to know, but do not know."

    Tavenner was a newspaper writer (1908-1912) who "championed the cause of the Filipino people in articles printed throughout the United States" before he was elected as the representative of the 14th district of Illinois to the 63rd and 64th Congresses (1913-1917) when he "cooperated with then Commissioner Manuel L. Quezon [for] the passage of the Jones Law, advocating it in the public press [and] doing missionary work among members of Congress."  He visited the Philippines in 1919, and worked with the Philippine Press Bureau in Washington DC (1919-1923).

    Jose Rizal was a rallying "Greatest Filipino" icon in the monthly magazine's campaign in support of Philippine independence.  He was its forceful argument against the prevailing cultural and racial prejudices of the opposition in the independence movement.

    First Issue (left, December 1923); Rizal Number (December 1925)

    The magazine felt it fitting "that the first issue of this journal [December 1923], which aspires to be of assistance to the people that Rizal loved so devotedly, should be featured with Rizal’s likeness on the cover page.” The same picture would be on the cover of the Rizal number of December 1925 with the caption "Greatest Filipino".

    Cover, December 1924 Issue.

    The December 1924 issue featured his full-body figure surrounded by pictures of monuments, which we believe were either of the entries to the Rizal monument competition before or those that Tavenner saw during his visit to the Philippines. The caption reads "He Gave His Life For His Country".

    At that time, JP Rizal was not known by many Americans. Thus, The Philippine Republic was selling the national hero alongside campaigning for sympathy and support for the grant of immediate independence to the Filipino people. It also ensured that the memory of the hero's sacrifices were kept alive among the Filipinos in the United States who were working or studying in colleges or universities across this country.  The December numbers would be followed in the next two months by accounts of Rizal Day commemorative programs organized by Filipino associations in America.

    The Rizal campaign in America, if we can call it that, used both materials written by the hero himself, and Filipino and American Rizalists.  Of the latter, the most notable was Pulitzer prize winner Charles Edward Russell, author of the books "The Outlook for the Philippines" and "The Hero of the Filipinos".

    The Charles Derbyshire translation of "My Last Farewell" was the centerpiece of the Rizal campaign.  Parts of it were widely quoted in the arguments for Philippine independence.  Three Rizal numbers had one-page spreads for it.  The 1924 issue had the Rizal bust, while the 1925 and 1927 numbers boxed the the photograph of the execution and the eye-witness account of Sir Hugh Clifford, as shown below.

    "My Last Farewell" spreads in the 1924 (left), 1925 and 1927 issues (right).
    The magazine called it the "An Immortal Poem" in the framed editorial feature of December 1925.  In the same issue, then Director Vicente Bunuan of the Philippine Press Bureau in Washington DC mentioned in his "Rizal as a Poet" article how this poem was read into the proceedings of the US Congress in 1902.

    Editorial feature, December 1925.

    To appreciate the growing up years of the hero, the magazine published "Rizal’s Own Story” in the December 1926 number with the note that Rizal wrote the first three chapters in 1878 when he was seventeen years old, referring to Chapter 1 ("My birth and earliest years in Kalamba") to Chapter IV ("The injustice done my mother"), and that Chapter IV and the next one were written in 1879 when he was 18.  The second installment of his story came in December 1927 including his "My First Reading Lesson" with the note that Rizal wrote them several years after the previous chapters.”

    In December 1923, readers got to know Teodora Alonso through “The Story of Jose Rizal’s Mother” by Camilo Osias, which was reproduced from the Philippine Readers. Sidelights from this work would appear again in the 1925 issue.

    Aside from the famous poem that he instructed his sister Trinidad in English to look for inside his reading lamp, which they had a hard time locating and extricating with a hairpin, some of his poems were also featured in The Philippine Republic.  The article "Sadness Permeates All of Rizal's Poems" (December 1927) included the translation of his "A la Virgen Maria" by Charles Edward Russell.  It should be very interesting to compare the later translations like Nick Joaquin's with Russell's "Sonnet: to the Virgin Mary":

               Dear Mary, soul of peace, our consolation, 
               That to the heavy-stricken heart doth bring
               The cool sweet waters from the all-healing spring, 
               From that skied throne where since thy coronation 
               Our hearts are bowed in tender adoration, 
               Lean down to hear my griefs vague whispering, 
               And o'er me, bruised and broken, deign to fling 
               The shining robe of thy serene salvation. 
               Thou art my mother, placid Mary; thou 
               Mine only hope, my one sure source of strength. 
               Wild is the sea and inky dark the night. 
               One beacon shinesl--the star upon thy brow.
               Sharp sin assails me; but thy look at length 
               Puts sin and grief and thoughts of death to flight!

    Russell was a major drum beater in the JP Rizal and independence campaign. He wrote a long poem as tribute to "Jose Rizal" (December 1923, reprinted December 1925).  He also penned “Rizal the Absolute Master of Himself”(December 1924) and “Dr. Jose Rizal Embodiment of Filipinos’ Independence Aspirations” (December 1927).  He and E. B. Rodriguez collaborated on the "Hero of the Filipinos" (1923), published in New York City and sold at $3 each, the first book about JP Rizal by an American author.

    There were other interesting materials on the Philippines and JP Rizal in the December issues of The Philippine Republic, among them ---  

    • “Jose Rizal/His Place in History Is Steadily Rising”(1924)
      • Rizal Day Speech of Hon. Parley Parker Christensen before the Filipinos of Chicago (1924)
      • "Rizal and Del Pilar—A Comparison” by Teodoro M. Kalaw (1925)
      • "American Poets Pay Tribute in Verse”(1925)
      • “Why Rizal’s Death Is Commemorated by Filipinos” by Clyde H. Tavenner (1925)
      • "A Washington Man [Stephen Bonsal] Who Knew Rizal”.(1926)
      • "Father Burgos, Who Also “Fell in the Night”/Story of the Martyr Whose Unjust Execution Influenced Rizal’s Entire Life” by Clyde H. Tavenner (1927)

      That was Jose Rizal in the propaganda for full Philippine independence then when his death was still fresh in the collective memory of the Filipinos here and in America.

      Today at his 150th birthday, who is he in the nation's life? Who is he outside the classroom where his Noli and Fili are required readings? Who is he to the surviving Filipino veterans of America's foreign wars waiting in South of Market, San Francisco, the survivors of the martial law regime, EDSA I and II, and those trying hard to find the "daang matuwid"?

      References for those who want to pore through the Rizal numbers of The Philippine Republic (1923-27) at the University of Michigan digital collections: